Anatomi Fisiologi Sistem Pencernaan

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Transcript of Anatomi Fisiologi Sistem Pencernaan

Sistem Pencernaan (Systema GastroIntestinalis)Dr. Arief Fatoni 2010

Health Sciences Department, Rogers State University 1

Obyektif Menerangkan

fungsi pokok dari sistem

Pencernaan Mengidentifikasi alat-alat pokok dan alatalat tambahan. Menerangkan peranan hati dan kantong empedu dalam pencernaan

Health Sciences Department, Rogers State University 2

Anatomy/Physiology Sistem Pencernaan Bertanggung

jawab untuk menerima , mencerna , menyerap makanan,dan mengeluarkan sisa padat. Saluran pencernaan (GI tract) Alimentasi - untuk mencukupi giziHealth Sciences Department, Rogers State University 3

ALAT PENCERNAAN TAMBAHAN Gigi

/ dentin Lidah / lingua Kelenjar ludah/ glandula salivarius Hati / hepar / liver Kantong empedu / vesica fellea/ gallbladder Pankreas / pancreasHealth Sciences Department, Rogers State University 4

Rongga Mulut / Cavum Oris Mulut Gigi

(bucca, lingua)

papillae mastikasi dentin pulp gingiva

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LINGUA Papilla lingualis

Papilla lingualis sircumvalata Papilla lingualis fungiformis Tonsila lingualis

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Gigi Arcus

maxillaris (atas) Arcus mandibularis (bawah) Gigi depan untuk menggigit dan merobek Gigi belakang untuk mengunyah dan menggiling

Gigi decidua

- shedding Primer - 20 gigi Permanen - 32 gigiHealth Sciences Department, Rogers State University 8

DENTS Dents permanen Dents decidua Dents insicivus Dents caninus Dents premolar Dents molar

Superior dextra Inferior dextra

Superior sinistra Inferior sinistra9

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Rongga Mulut / Cavum Oris Palatum,

durum dan mole

bolus Pharynx Uvula Esophagus Epiglottis

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Esophagus kerongkogan chyme cardiac,

atau bawah esophageal atau gastroesophageal sphincter

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Lambung / Ventriculus Corpus

/Body,

Fundus

fundus pylorus rugae Sphincter pyloricumHealth Sciences Department, Rogers State University

Body

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Usus Halus /Intestinum Usus

kecil entero usus kecil villi Bagian-bagian duodenum jejunum ileum Valvula

ileocecalis14

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Usus besar Usus colon cecum Appendix

besar

vermiformis

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Colon

ascenden Flexura hepatica transversum Flexura splenicum descenden

Sigmoid Rectum AnusHealth Sciences Department, Rogers State University 16

Hati / Hepar / liver Fungsi

Menghasilkan empedu glucose - glycogen Menimbun vitamin, B12, A, D, E, K erythrocytolysis (pigmen dilepas dieliminasi dalam empedu disebut bilirubin) bilirubin membuat warna tinja khas /gelap Mengeluarkan toxin dari darah Membuat protein darahHealth Sciences Department, Rogers State University 17

HEPAR

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Pankreas internal

fungsi endocrine

insulin glucogon external

fungsi exocrine

amylase - karbihidrat trypsin, chymotrypsin - protein lipase lemak

tidak aktif sampai berada di Health Sciences Department, Rogers State University duodenum19

Enzyme

PANKREAS

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Kantong empedu Seperti

buah pear berbentuk kantong dibawah hati chole berarti empedu Cyste berarti kantong atau saccus Kantong empedu berkontraksi mendorong empedu keluar melelui ductus cysticus kedalam ductus biliverus communisHealth Sciences Department, Rogers State University 21

SALURAN EMPEDU DAN PANKREAS Ductus hepaticus

sinistra Ductus hepaticus dextra Ductus hepaticus communis Ductus sisticus Ductus choleducus Ductus pancreaticus Department, Rogers State University Health SciencesAmpula vateri22

Empeduadalah getah pencernaan bertindak mengemulsi lemak menjadi way bahwa enzyme dapat mencerna lemak Berjalan melalui ductus hepaticus ke ductus cysticus ke kantong empedu dimana dia ditimbun Empedu mengandung air, garam-garam empedu, cholesterol, dan bilirubin (suatu zat warna hasil dari pemecahan hemoglobin) bilirubin Rogers State University Health Sciences Department,mebuat warna empedu kuning atau orange Empedu

23

Lambung selama pencernaan Getah lambung

HCL mengaktifkan enzym protease pepsin lipase Chyme

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Usus kecil selama pencernaan Pencernaan lengkap

pada usus kecil chyme tercampur dengan empedu dan getah pankreas Penggumpalan (emulsifikasi) Penyerapan (absorpsi)Health Sciences Department, Rogers State University 25

Usus besar Menerima sisa-sisa

pencernaan dan menimbun sampai dilepaskan dari tubuh. Penyerapan kelebihan air faeces, tinja defekasi, atau gerakan ususHealth Sciences Department, Rogers State University 26

Patologi - Ulcer Gastric

ulcer Peptic ulcer Ulcerative Colitis

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Patology - Hernia Diaphragmatica Hiatal,

Gastroesophageal Inguinal Umbilical

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Sumbatan usus Volvulus

Ischemia Necrosis Peritonitis Intussuscepsi

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Hemorrhoid (wasir) Internal External Hemorrhoidectomy

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Gangguan Liver Kuning

- jaundice, icterus Hepatitis Type A - fecal, oral Type B - parenteral, sexual, perinatal Type C - parenteral ke darah , produk darah

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Diverticulosis Diverticulitis obstipasi diverticulectomy

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Oncologi Neoplasma

dari lapisan epitelial

Adenocarcinoma lambung Carcinoma esofagus Carcinoma hepatoseluler Carcinoma pankreas

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Istilah Diagnostic, Symptomatic, Therapeutic Aerophagia anorexia appendicitis ascites borborygmus bulimia

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Istilah Diagnostic, Symptomatic, Therapeutic cachexia cholelithiasis cleft

palate Crohns disease cirrhosis colicHealth Sciences Department, Rogers State University 35

Istilah Diagnostic, Symptomatic, Therapeutic deglutition dysentery dysphagia eructation fecalith flatus gastroesophageal

reflux disease36

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Istilah Diagnostic, Symptomatic, Therapeutic Halitosis hematemesis irritable

bowel syndrome leukoplakia malabsorption syndrome melena obstipationHealth Sciences Department, Rogers State University 37

Istilah Diagnostic, Symptomatic, Therapeutic Peristalsis pyloric

stenosis regurgitation steatorrhea visceroptosis

Health Sciences Department, Rogers State University 38