Studi Kelayakan (Feasibility Study) Departemen Teknologi Industri Pertanian Fakultas Teknologi...
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Studi Kelayakan (Feasibility Study)
Departemen Teknologi Industri PertanianFakultas Teknologi Pertanian IPB
PengertianPengkajian berbagai aspek penting dari sebuah gagasan proyek untuk memberikan landasan kuat apakah proyek dapat diteruskanKegunaan studi kelayakan:Merumuskan kegiatan-kegiatan untuk pengembangan dan implementasi proyekMengestimasi berbagai keperluan proyek: waktu, SDM, equipmentMengidentifikasi biaya-biaya yang diperlukan dan manfaat yang ditimbulkan proyekKelayakan: operationally, technically, and economically feasible
PersyaratanUser involvement during feasibility study is criticalConsiderable experience and technical expertise are required to gather the proper information, analyze it, and reach practical conclusionHindari: terminate a valid project or continue the one that is not economically or technically feasible.
Posisi Studi Kelayakan dalam Investment Project CyclePre-Investment PhaseOperating PhaseInvestment PhaseIdentificationOPPORTUNITY STUDYPre-SelectionPRE-FEASIBILITY STUDYPreparationFEASIBILITY STUDYAppraisalAPPRAISAL REPORTSUPPORT STUDIES
Negotiations and contractingEngineering designConstructionPre-production marketingTrainingCommissioning and start-upReplacement RehabilitationExpansion Innovation
The Pre-investment PhaseOpportunity studies: Identification of investment opportunitiesPre-feasibility and feasibility studies: Analysis of project alternatives, preliminary project selection, and project preparationAppraisal report: Project appraisal and investment decisionSupport studies: To be incorporated into pre- and/or feasibility studies.
Opportunity StudiesThe starting point in a series of investment-related activities; should analyze the following:Potential natural resources for processing and manufacturingThe existing agriculture pattern that serves as a basis for agro-based industriesFuture demand as a result of increasing population or purchasing power or newly developed goodsImports to identify areas for import substitutionPossible interlinkage with other industriesPossibilities for product diversification or capacity expansion Export possibilities
Pre-feasibility StudiesA more detailed study for a project idea just before assigning larger funds for feasibility studyThe objectives are to determine whether:All possible project alternatives have been examinedThe project concept justifies a detailed analysisThe project idea attractive enough for an investorThe environmental situation at the planned site and potential impact are inline with national standardAny aspects are critical to its feasibility
Pre-feasibility Studies A pre-feasibility study should be viewed as an intermediate stage between a project opportunity study and a detailed feasibility studyThe difference is in the degree of detail of the information obtained and the intensity with which project alternatives are discussedThe structure of a pre-feasibility study should be the same as that of feasibility study
Support (Functional) StudiesCover specific aspects of an investment project; prerequisites for pre-feasibility studies, such as:Market studies of product to be producedRaw material and factory supply studies covering current and projected availability of raw material supply and priceLaboratory and pilot-plant testLocation studiesEnvironmental impact assessmentEconomies-of-scale studiesEquipment selection studies
Feasibility StudiesShould provide all data necessary for an investment decisionThe commercial, technical, financial, economic, and environmental prerequisites should be defined and critically examined the project is clearly defined in terms of objectives, marketing strategies, market shares, production capacities, plant location, existing raw materials, appropriate technology and mechanical equipment, and an environmental assessmentThe financial part covers the scope of the investment: the net working capital, the production and marketing costs, sales revenues and return on capital invested.
Appraisal ReportIs considered as an independent stage of the pre-investment phase marked by the final investment and financing decisions taken by the project promotersAspects to be evaluated: technical, commercial, market, managerial, organization, financial and economic.
Promotion of Industrial Investment ProjectsIdentification of potential sponsorsNegotiations and establishment of cooperation agreementDetermining potential sources of finance in most developing countries depends on foreign funds due to low saving capacity.
Outline of Pre- and Feasibility StudiesExecutive summary: a synoptic review of all the essential findings of each aspectProject background and history:project sponsorsproject historycost of studies and investigations already performedMarket analysis and marketing concept:Definition of the basic idea of the project, objectives and strategyDemand and marketStructure and characteristics of the marketThe estimated existing size and capacities of the industryPast imports and their future trends, volume and pricesRole of the industry in the national economy
Outline of Pre- and Feasibility Studies Marketing concept, sales forecast and marketing budgetDescription of the marketing concept, selected targets and strategiesAnticipated competition for the project from existing and potential local and foreign producers and suppliersLocalization of markets and product target groupSales programEstimated annual sales revenue from products and by-productsEstimate annual costs of sales promotion and marketingProduction program required:ProductsBy-productsWastes (estimated annual cost of waste disposal)
Outline of Pre- and Feasibility Studies Material inputs (approximate input requirements, their present and potential supply position, and a rough estimate of annual costs of local and foreign material inputs):Raw materialsProcessed industrial materialsComponentsFactory supplies:Auxiliary materialsUtilities: power and energy requirements
Outline of Pre- and Feasibility Studies Location, site, and environment:Pre-selection, including an estimate of the cost of landPreliminary environmental impact assessmentProject engineering:Determination of plant capacity: feasible normal plant capacityQuantitative relationship between sales, plant capacity and material inputsPreliminary determination of scope of projectTechnology and equipment:Technologies and processes that can be adoptedTechnology description and forecastEnvironmental impact of technologiesRough layout of proposed equipmentRough estimate of investment cost of equipment.
Outline of Pre- and Feasibility Studies Civil engineering works:Rough layout of civil engineering works, arrangement of buildings, short description of construction materials to be usedSite preparation and developmentBuilding and special civil worksOutdoor worksRough estimate of investment cost of civil engineering worksOrganization and overhead costs:Rough organizational layout: general management, production, sales, administrationEstimated overhead costs: factory, administrative, financial
Outline of Pre- and Feasibility Studies Human resources:Estimated human resource requirements, broken down into labor and staffEstimated annual human resource costsImplementation scheduling:Proposed approximate implementation time scheduleEstimated implementation costs
Outline of Pre- and Feasibility Studies Financial analysis and investment:Total investment costsRough estimate of working capitalEstimated fixed assetsProject financingProposed capital structure and proposed financing (local and foreign)Cost of financeProduction costs ( materials, personnel, overhead, fixed, and variable costs)Financial evaluation:Payback periodInternal rate of returnBreak even pointSensitivity analysisNational economic evaluation:Foreign exchange effect, value-added generated, employment effect.
The Investment PhaseProvides wide scope for consultancy and engineering works; several stages:Establishing the legal, financial and organizational basis for implementationTechnology acquisition and transferDetailed engineering design and contracting including tendering, evaluation of bids and negotiationsAcquisition of land, construction work and installationPre-production marketingRecruitment and training of personnelPlant commissioning and start-up
The Operational PhaseShort-term viewpoint: relates to the initial period after commencement of production inadequate labor productivity, lack of qualified staff, etc.Long-term viewpoint: relates to chosen strategies and the associated production and marketing costs as well as sales revenues.