Konsep Dasar TCP/IP

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  • 1. T C P / I P m e r u p a k a n d a s a r d a r i s e g a l a n y a , ta n p a m e m p e la ja r i T C P / I P k e m u n g k in a n k i t a t i d a k d a p a t m e la k a h m a j u d i d u n i ap e r h a c k i n g a n . D e n g a n k a ta la in , T C P / I P m e r u p a k a n a w a l d a r i s e g a l a n y a . B a n y a k o r a n g y g m e n y e p e l e k a n p e n t in g n y am e m p e l a j a r i T C P / I P , m e r e k a m e n g a k u d i r i n y a " h a c k e r " t e t a p i ti d a k m e n g e r ti s a m a s e k a li a p a i t u T C P / I P . M e r a s a h a c k e rh a n y a a p a b il a b i s a m e n c r a s h a t a u p u n m e n j e b o l s e r v e r , t e t a p i s e b e t u l n y a b u k a n i tu m a k s u n y a . H a c k e r i tu a d a l a h o r a n g y gh a u s a k a n p e n g e t a h u a n , b u k a n h a u s a k a n p e n g h a n c u r a n . U n tu k m e n ja d i h a c k e r d ib u t u h k a n k e r ja k e r a s , s e m a n g a t , m o t iv a s iy g t in g g i s e r ta p e m a h a m a n s e lu k - b e lu k i n t e r n e t i t u s e n d ir i , ta n p a h a l - h a l t e r s e b u t m u s t a h i l a n d a d a p a t m e n j a d i s e o r a n gh a c k e r y a n g ta n g g u h .T u l i s a n i n i d i d e d i k a s i k a n t e r u ta m a u n tu k s ia p a s a j a y a n g in g i n m e m p e l a j a r i T C P / I P , b u k a n u n t u k m e r e k a y a n g h a n y a in g i nm e n c a r i j a l a n p i n ta s m e n ja d i h a c k e r s e j a t i . B a g i a n d a y g m e m a n g u d a h p r o f h a c k in g m u n g k i n t u l i s a n i n i t i d a k p e n t in g , k a r e n am e m a n g t u l i s a n in i h a n y a l a h p e n g a n t a r b e l a k a d a n b u k a n m e r u p a k a n r e f e r e n s i y g s e m p u r n a ( d a n j a u h d a r i s e m p u r n a ) o l e hk a r e n a n ya h a n ya d ik h u s u s ka n b a g i m e r e k a y g p e n d a ta n g b a r u (n e w b ie s ).1 . A p a it u T C P / IP ?T C P / I P a d a l a h s a la h s a t u j e n i s p r o to k o l * y g m e m u n g k i n k a n k u m p u la n k o m p u t e r u n t u k b e r k o m u n ik a s i d a n b e r t u k a r d a t ad i d a la m s u a t u n e t w o r k (j a r i n g a n ) .*** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** *** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** *** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **M e r u p a k a n h i m p u n a n a t u r a n y g m e m u n g k i n k a n k o m p u t e r u n t u k b e r h u b u n g a n a n t a r a s a t u d e n g a n y g la i n , b ia s a n y a b e r u p ab e n t u k / w a k tu / b a r i s a n / p e m e r i k s a a n e r r o r s a a t t r a n s m i s i d a t a .*** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** *** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** *** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **2 . A p a y g m e m b u a t T C P / IP m e n j a d i p e n t in g ?K a r e n a T C P / I P m e r u p a k a n p r o t o k o l y g t e l a h d i t e r a p k a n p a d a h a m p ir s e m u a p e r a n g k a t k e r a s d a n s i s t e m o p e r a s i . T id a k a d ar a n g k a ia n p r o to k o l la in y g t e r s e d i a p a d a s e m u a s i s t e m b e r i k u t i n i :a . N o v el N etw ar e.b . M a in f r a m e I B M .c . S is te m d ig ita l V M S .d . S e r v e r M ic r o s o ft W in d o w s N Te . W o r k s t a t io n U N I X , L in u X , F r e e B S Df. P er s o n a l k om p u ter D O S .

2. 3 .B a g a im a n a a w a l n y a k e b e r a d a a n T C P / IP ?K o n s e p T C P / I P b e r a w a l d a r i k e b u tu h a n D o D ( D e p a r t e m e n t o f D e f e n s e ) A S a k a n s u a t u k o m u n i k a s i d i a n t a r a b e r b a g a iv a r ia s i k o m p u t e r y g t e l a h a d a . K o m p u t e r - k o m p u t e r D o D in i s e r i n g k a l i h a r u s b e r h u b u n g a n a n t a r a s a t u o r g a n i s a s i p e n e l i ti d go r g a n i s a s i p e n e l i ti la i n n y a , d a n h a r u s t e t a p b e r h u b u n g a n s e h in g g a p e r t a h a n a n n e g a r a t e t a p b e r j a la n s e la m a t e r ja d ib e n c a n a , s e p e r t i l e d a k a n n u k li r . O l e h k a r e n a n y a p a d a ta h u n 1 9 6 9 d i m u l a i la h p e n e l i ti a n t e r h a d a p s e r a n g k a ia n p r o t o k o lT C P / I P . D i a n ta r a t u ju a n - t u j u a n p e n e l i t ia n i n i a d a l a h s e b a g a i b e r ik u t :1 . T e r c i p t a n y a p r o t o k o l - p r o t o k o l u m u m , D o D m e m e r l u k a n s u a tu p r o t o k o l y g d a p a t d i t e n t u k a n u n tu k s e m u a ja r i n g a n .2 . M e n i n g k a t k a n e fi s i e n s i k o m u n i k a s i d a t a .3 . D a p a t d i p a d u k a n d e n g a n t e k n o lo g i W A N ( W id e A r e a N e t w o r k ) y g t e l a h a d a .4 . M u d a h d i k o n fi g u r a s i k a n .T a h u n 1 9 6 8 D o D A R P A n e t ( A d v a n c e d R e s e a c h P r o j e c t A g e n c y ) m e m u l a i p e n e li t i a n y g k e m u d ia n m e n j a d i c ik a l b a k a lp a c k e t s w i t c h i n g . P a c k e t s w i t c h i n g i n i la h y g m e m u n g k in k a n k o m u n ik a s i a n ta r a la p i s a n n e t w o r k (d ib a h a s n a n ti ) d im a n ad a t a d ij a l a n k a n d a n d i s a lu r k a n m e l a l u i ja r in g a n d a l a m b e n t u k u n i t - u n i t k e c i l y g d i s e b u t p a c k e t * . T i a p - t i a p p a c k e t i n im e m b a w a in f o r m a s i a l a m a t n y a m a s in g - m a s in g y g d i t a n g a n i d e n g a n k h u s u s o l e h ja r i n g a n t e r s e b u t d a n ti d a k t e r g a n tu n gd e n g a n p a k e t - p a k e t la i n . J a r i n g a n y g d i k e m b a n g k a n i n i , y g m e n g g u n a k a n A R P A n e t s e b a g a i tu la n g p u n g g u n g n y a , m e n j a d it e r k e n a l s e b a g a i in t e r n e t .P r o t o k o l - p r o to k o l T C P / I P d i k e m b a n g k a n l e b i h l a n ju t p a d a a w a l 1 9 8 0 d a n m e n j a d i p r o to k o l - p r o to k o l s t a n d a r u n t u k A R P A n e tp a d a t a h u n 1 9 8 3 . P r o t o k o l - p r o t o k o l i n i m e n g a la m i p e n i n g k a ta n p o p u la r i t a s d i k o m u n i ta s p e m a k a i k e t ik a T C P / I P d i g a b u n g k a nm e n j a d i v e r s i 4 .2 d a r i B S D ( B e r k e l e y S t a n d a r d D i s t r i b u t i o n ) U N I X . V e r s i i n i d ig u n a k a n s e c a r a lu a s p a d a i n s t i tu s ip e n e l i t ia n d a n p e n d id i k a n d a n d i g u n a k a n s e b a g a i d a s a r d a r i b e b e r a p a p e n e r a p a n U N I X k o m e r s i a l , t e r m a s u k S u n O S d a r i S u nd a n U l t r i x d a r i D i g i t a l . K a r e n a B S D U N IX m e n d i r i k a n h u b u n g a n a n t a r a T C P / I P d a n s i s t e m o p e r a s i U N I X , b a n y a k im p l e m e n t a s iU N IX s e k a ra n g m e n g g a b u n g k a n T C P / IP .* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ** * * * * * * * * * * * *u n i t i n fo r m a s i y g m a n a ja r i n g a n b e r k o m u n ik a s i . T i a p - t ia p p a k e t b e r i s i i d e n ti t a s ( h e a d e r ) s t a t i o n p e n g ir i m d a n p e n e r i m a ,i n fo r m a s i e r r o r - c o n t r o l , p e r m i n ta a n s u a t u l a y a n a n d a la m l a p i s a n n e t w o r k , in f o r m a s i b a g a im a n a m e n a n g a n i p e r m in t a a n d a ns e m b a r a n g d a ta p e n ti n g y g h a r u s d i t r a n s f e r .* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ** * * * * * * * * * * * * 3. 4 . L a y a n a n a p a s a j a y g d ib e r ik a n o l e h T C P / IP ?B e r i k u t in i a d a l a h la y a n a n " t r a d i s i o n a l " y g d i la k u k a n T C P / I P :a.P e n g ir im a n file ( file t r a n s fe r ) . F ile T r a n s fe r P r o to k o l ( F T P )m e m u n g k in k a n p e n g g u n a k o m p u t e r y g s a t u u n tu k d a p a t m e n g i r i m a t a u p u n m e n e r i m a f il e k e k o m p u t e r j a r in g a n . K a r e n am a s a l a h k e a m a n a n d a ta , m a k a F T P s e r i n g k a l i m e m e r l u k a n n a m a p e n g g u n a (u s e r n a m e ) d a n p a s s w o r d , m e s k i p u n b a n y a kj u g a F T P y g d a p a t d i a k s e s m e la l u i a n o n y m o u s , a l i a s ti d a k b e r p a s s w o r d . ( li h a t R F C 9 5 9 u n t u k s p e s i f ik a s i F T P )b.R e m o te lo g inN e t w o r k t e r m in a l P r o t o k o l ( t e l n e t ) m e m u n g k i n k a n p e n g g u n a k o m p u t e r d a p a t m e l a k u k a n l o g in k e d a l a m s u a t u k o m p u t e rd i d a la m s u a t u j a r in g a n . J a d i h a l in i b e r a r t i b a h w a p e n g g u n a m e n g g u n a k a n k o m p u t e r n y a s e b a g a i p e r p a n j a n g a n ta n g a n d a r ik o m p u t e r ja r i n g a n t e r s e b u t .( l i h a t R F C 8 5 4 d a n 8 5 5 u n tu k s p e s i fi k a s i t e l n e t l e b i h l a n j u t )c.C o m p u te r m a ilD i g u n a k a n u n t u k m e n e r a p k a n s i s t e m e l e k t r o n i k m a il . ( l ih a t R F C 8 2 1 d a n 8 2 2 ) .d.N e tw o r k F ile S y s te m ( N F S ) .P e l a y a n a n a k s e s f il e - f i l e ja r a k j a u h y g m e m u n g k i n k a n k li e n - k l i e n u n tu k m e n g a k s e s f i l e - f il e p a d a k o m p u t e r j a r i n g a n ja r a kj a u h w a l a u p u n fi l e t e r s e b u t d i s i m p a n s e c a r a l o k a l . ( l i h a t R F C 1 0 0 1 d a n 10 0 2 u n t u k k e t e r a n g a n l e b i h l a n ju t )e.r e m o te e x e c u tio nM e m u n g k i n k a n p e n g g u n a k o m p u t e r u n tu k m e n j a l a n k a n s u a t u p r o g r a m d id a l a m k o m p u t e r y g b e r b e d a . B ia s a n y a b e r g u n a j ik ap e n g g u n a m e n g g u n a k a n k o m p u t e r y g t e r b a ta s , s e d a n g k a n ia m e m e r lu k a n s u m b e r y g b a n y a k d a l a m s u a tu s y s t e m k o m p u t e r .A d a b e b e r a p a j e n i s r e m o t e e x e c u t i o n , a d a y g b e r u p a p e r in t a h - p e r i n t a h d a s a r s a ja , y a i t u y g d a p a t d i ja la n k a n d a l a