Taste Disorder

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    Drg.Erna Sulistyani, M. Kes.

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    Gangguan pengecapandapat menyebabkanpenurunan nafsu makan

    terutama pada orang tuadaat menyebabkanpenurunan berat badan,kekurangan gizi,

    melemahkan sistemimun bahkan kematian

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    Terdapat 5 sensasi rasa yaitu, manis, asam, pahit,asin dan umami. Adanya reseptor umami iniditemukan di Jepang pada awal abad 20.Umamiitu rasa pada kecap, keju, tomat, kacang-kacangandan biji-bijian.

    Flavor : di tentukan oleh teksture, kepedasan(spicyness), temerature dan aroma .

    Flavor banyak ditentukan oleh indera penciuman.

    Loss of taste may be permanent or temporary,depending on the cause

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    Hypogeusia : reduced ability to taste sweet, sour,bitter, salty, and umami,

    Ageusia : bila seseorang sama sekali tidak dapatmerasakan kelima rasa tersebut

    Dysgesia : condition in which a foul, salty, rancid, ormetallic taste sensation will persist in the mouth. Biasa

    terkait dengan BMS.

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    Penyebab Upper respiratory and middle ear infections

    Radiation therapy for cancers of the head and neck

    Exposure to certain chemicals, such as insecticides andsome medications, including some commonantibiotics and antihistamines

    Head injury.

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    Poor oral hygiene and dental problems

    Aging (jarang)

    Illness

    Anything that interrupts the transfer of tastesensations to the brain, or by conditions that affect theway the brain interprets the sensation of taste

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    Defisiensi Zinc (??)

    mouth dryness,

    heavy smoking,vitamin deficiencies,

    Bell's palsy, and

    Sjogren's syndrome

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    antihypertensives, antimicrobials and antidepressantsdsb bisa menyebabkan drug-related chemosensorydisturbances. Kepekaan tergantung pada sex, age,body mass and genetic variations.

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    Symptoms and Diagnosis The most common taste complaint is "phantom taste

    perception" -- tasting something when nothing is in themouth. (Dysgeusia)

    Hypogeusia (the reduced ability to taste). Usuallytemporary. True taste disorders are rare. Most changes inthe perception of food flavor result from the loss of smell.

    Ageusia : caused by head trauma; some surgicalprocedures, such as middle ear surgery or extraction of thethird molar; radiation therapy; and viral infections.

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    More often, people with taste disorders experiencea specific ageusia of one or more of the five taste

    categories: sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami, orsavory.

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    Are taste disorders serious? Taste disorders can weaken or remove an early warning

    system that most of us take for granted.

    Loss of taste can create serious health issues. Adistorted sense of taste can be a risk factor for heartdisease,diabetes,stroke and other illnesses that requiresticking to a specific diet..

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    Loss of taste can cause us to eat too much sugar or saltto make our food taste better. This can be a problemfor people with certain medical conditions, such asdiabetes or high blood pressure. In severe cases, loss oftaste can lead to depression.

    Loss of taste and smell can also be a sign of certaindegenerative diseases of the nervous system, such asParkinson s disease or Alzheimers disease.

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    Treatment. Keberhasilan terapi ditentukan oleh penyebab dari

    taste disorder

    Bila tidak bisa disembuhkan maka diperlukankonseling untuk menjaga diet dengan baik

    Bila penyebabnya adalah obat maka obat bisadihentikan atau digantikan dengan sejenisnya dengan

    pertimbangan dokter yang merawat. Sering perbaikan pada kesehatan umum (termasuk

    psikis) secara keseluruhan juga akan memperbaikitase disorder.

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    Occasionally, a person may recover his or her sense oftaste spontaneously.

    Proper oral hygiene is important to regaining andmaintaining a well-functioning sense of taste.

    Prepare foods with a variety of colors and textures.

    Use aromatic herbs and hot spices to add more flavor;

    however, avoid adding more sugar or salt to foods. If diet permits, add small amounts of cheese, bacon

    bits, butter, olive oil, or toasted nuts on vegetables.

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