DSS Development : Development Strategy And Tools Pertemuan - 13 Matakuliah: Decision Support System...
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Slide 2 DSS Development : Development Strategy And Tools Pertemuan - 13 Matakuliah: Decision Support System Tahun: 2009 Slide 3 Bina Nusantara University 3 Sasaran Pembelajaran Mahasiswa dapat menemukan metode dan teknik serta tools yang tepat yang diperlukan dalam pengembangan suatu DSS, dengan : Mengerti konsep dasar Pengembangan sistem, tahapan- tahapannya Karakteristik dan tipe DSS-DSS Mengerti faktor-faktor keberhasilan dan kegagalan pengembangan DSS. Mengerti Pentingnya project management. Mengerti berbagai macam metoda pengembangan DSS Mengerti Aspek Teknologi dan Tools dalam pengembangan dan operasional DSS. Slide 4 Bina Nusantara University 4 Pokok Bahasan DSS Development Strategy - Generic SDLC Methodology - Agile Development - Prototyping Development Team and Tools Slide 5 Bina Nusantara University 5 Pengalaman : Osram Sylvania Thinks Small, Strategizes Big-Develops the Infonet HR Portal System Creation of a specialized business portal to solve specific problem Prototype Interactive, Web-based HR portal Think small, strategize big Focus on key problems first Plan to achieve quick small successes Intranet-based portal for hiring, job postings, benefits, bonuses, retirement information Slide 6 Bina Nusantara University 6 DSS Development Strategy Project Management Analysis and Design DSS Implementation Slide 7 Bina Nusantara University 7 Successful Project Management Establish a baseline Define scope of project Manage change and scope creep Get support from upper management Establish timelines, milestones, and budgets based on realistic goals Involve users Document everything Slide 8 Bina Nusantara University 8 Implementation Failures Lack of stakeholder involvement Incomplete requirements Scope creep Unrealistic expectations Project champion leaves Lack of skill or expertise Inadequate human resources New technologies Slide 9 Bina Nusantara University 9 Evolutionary Disruptors Development environment Organizational cultural factors Loss of top management support User and analyst attitude User experience Development team capability Development process User education, support, involvement, training Slide 10 Bina Nusantara University 10 Project Management Tools Project management software can allow: Collaboration among disparate teams Resource and program management Portfolio management Web enabled Aggregates and analyses project data Slide 11 Bina Nusantara University 11 Basic :Systems Development Life Cycle Empat fase Planning Analysis Design Implementation Cyclical Dapat kembali ke fase lain Model Waterfall Slide 12 Bina Nusantara University 12 Tools Computer-aided software design tools Upper CASE Creates systems diagrams Lower CASE Manages diagrams and code Integrated CASE Combination RAD design tools Enterprise class repository and collaboration UML modeling Analysis and design software Code debugging methods Testing and quality assurance tools Slide 13 Bina Nusantara University 13 Alternative Development Methodologies Parallel development Multiple development on separate systems RAD Quick development allowing fast, but limited functionality Phased development Sequential serial development Prototyping Rapid development of portions of projects for user input and modification Small working model or may become functional part of final system Throwaway prototyping Pilot test or simple development platforms Slide 14 Bina Nusantara University 14 Slide 15 Bina Nusantara University 15 Agile Development Rapid prototyping Used for: Unclear or rapidly changing requirements Speedy development Heavy user input Incremental delivery with short time frames Tend to have integration problems Slide 16 Bina Nusantara University 16 DSS Development Methodology Prototyping Iterative design Evolutionary development Middle out process Adaptive design Incremental design Slide 17 Bina Nusantara University DSS Prototyping Prototype DSS prototype is alternative to goal of an operational DSS intended to demonstrate and provoke produced more rapidly than operational DSS analysis yields small (not complete) set of requirements design quickly created without great attention to details implementation is rapid without extensive testing or documentation design (what is the blueprint?) implementation (following the blueprint) Slide 18 Bina Nusantara University DSS Prototyping resultant prototype demonstrates on a small scale and in a partial way what might be experienced with an operational DSS can aid in securing/retaining support by showing tangible progress if prototype is a failure, the plan to build an operational DSS can be reconsidered quickly can help provoke user to clarify what is desired, indicating what to change, add, eliminate two kinds of prototypes throwaway evolutionary Slide 19 Bina Nusantara University 19 DSS Prototyping Short steps Planning Analysis Design Prototype Immediate stakeholder feedback Iterative In development of prototype Within the system in general Evaluation integral part Control mechanism Slide 20 Bina Nusantara University 20 DSS Prototyping Advantages User and management involvement Learning explicitly integrated Prototyping bypasses information requirement Short intervals between iterations Low cost Improved user understanding of system Disadvantages Changing requirements May not have thorough understanding of benefits and costs Poorly tested Dependencies, security, and safety may be ignored High uncertainty Problem may get lost Reduction in quality Higher costs due to multiple productions Slide 21 Bina Nusantara University 21 Change Management Crucial to DSS People resistant to change Examine cause of change May require organizational culture shift Lewin-Schein change theory steps Unfreeze Create awareness of need for change People support what they help create Move Develop new methods and behaviors Create and maintain momentum Refreeze Reinforce desired changes Establish stable environment Slide 22 Bina Nusantara University 22 DSS Technology Levels DSS primary tools Fundamental elements Programming languages, graphics, editors, query systems DSS generator (engine) Integrated software package for building specific DSS Modeling, report generation, graphics, risk analysis Specific DSS DSS application that accomplishes the work DSS primary tools are used to construct integrated tools that are used to construct specific tools Slide 23 Bina Nusantara University 23 Slide 24 Bina Nusantara University 24 DSS Hardware Hardware Client/Workstation : PC sejenisnya Server /Host :PCs to multiprocessor mainframes Communication Network LAN, WAN, MAN Internet Software Involves multiple criteria Develop in house, outsource, or buy off the shelf Off the shelf software rapidly updated; many on market Prices fluctuate Different tools available Slide 25 Bina Nusantara University 25 DSS Developer Team developed DSS requires substantial effort to build and manage End user developed DSS Decision-makers and knowledge workers develop to solve problems or enhance productivity Advantages Short delivery time User requirements specifications are eliminated Reduced implementation problems Low costs Risks Quality may be low May have lack of documentation Security risks may increase DSS is much more than just a DBMS, MBMS, GUI, interface, and knowledge component Slide 26 Bina Nusantara University 26 DSS Tools ( refference ) Slide 27 Bina Nusantara University Development Tools Objectives Distinguish between DSSs and the tools used to build DSSs. Identify important factors that deserve to be considered when selecting tools for constructing your DSSs. Describe major interface styles that can be built into DSSs. Explain the relationship between DSS development tools and knowledge management techniques, including ways of integrating multiple techniques in the construction of a single DSS. Knowledge management techniques can be implemented in many tools and tool can furnish multiple knowledge management techniques Technique-oriented tool categories Which technique is emphasized? May fit in multiple categories Slide 28 Bina Nusantara University Development Tools Roles of tools in development Assist at analysis/design stages versus implementation stage Roles in implementation intrinsic tool functions as PPS developer initializes KS LS, PS customization possible widely used Slide 29 Bina Nusantara University Development Tools partially intrinsic tool functions as part of PPS developer designs/implements rest of PPS extrinsic tool does not function as any part of PPS used to produce parts of the PPS may be used to produce some KS contents