ATLAS ANATOMI HEWAN - repository.unas.ac.id

of 43/43
1 ATLAS ANATOMI HEWAN (PETUNJUK PRAKTIKUM ANATOMI HEWAN) (Edisi Revisi) OLEH : Ir. Ida Wiryanti, MSi Dra. Suprihatin, MSi FAKULTAS BIOLOGI UNIVERSITAS NASIONAL 2020
  • date post

    30-Oct-2021
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    1
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of ATLAS ANATOMI HEWAN - repository.unas.ac.id

KATA PENGANTAR
Atlas Anatomi Hewan ini diterbitkan sebagai salah satu pelengkap pedoman atau
petunjuk untuk praktikum mahasiswa Fakultas Biologi Universitas Nasional yang sedang
mengambil mata kuliah Anatomi Hewan. Diktat ini hanya digunakan untuk kalangan sendiri
khususnya untuk mahasiswa Fakultas Biologi Universitas Nasional Jakarta. Kami menyadari
bahwa diktat ini masih mempunyai banyak kekurangan, oleh karena itu kami menerima saran
dan kritik yang bersifat membangun demi perbaikan dan kelengkapan diktat ini.
Kami mengucapkan terimakasih atas semua bentuk bantuan yang telah kami terima,
hingga terbitnya diktat ini. Kami mohon maaf atas semua kekurangan yang ada pada diktat ini.
Akhirnya kami berharap semoga diktat ini dapat bermanfaat bagi mahasiswa maupun dosen mata
kuliah Anatomi Hewan.
Jakarta, September 2020
5
Internal anatomy of a bony fish: finned aquatic vertebrates animal with skin covered with
scales. It lives in water and is usually oviparous.
Brain: seat of the mental faculties of a fish.
Esophagus: part of the digestive tract connecting the mouth to the stomach.
Dorsal aorta: vessel in the back that carries blood from the heart to the organs.
Stomach: part of the digestive tract between the esophagus and the intestine.
Air bladder: pocket in which urine collects.
Spinal cord: part of the nervous system that connects the brain to all other parts of a fish.
Kidney: blood-purifying organ.
Genital Orifice: opening related to the genital organs.
Anus: end of the digestive tract.
Gonad: hormone-secreting sexual gland of a fish.
Intestine: last part of the digestive tract.
Pyloric cecum: cul-de-sac related to the intestine.
Gall bladder: small sac containing the bile.
Liver: bile-producing digestive gland.
Tooth: hard organ of a fish used to shred food.
Eye: sight organ of a fish.
Olfactory bulb: bulging part of the smell organ of smell of a fish.
GAMBAR: THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Fish breathe through their gills. Gills are outfoldings of the body surface that are suspended in the
water. To do this, they have numerous specially adaptive mechanisms. As water passes through the gills,
it passes through several gill arches consisting of many gill filaments (see diagram above). Each gill
filament consists of many flattened out plates called lamellae. The lamella have capillaries, which are
basically really small blood vessels that are so thin that they can absorb oxygen. The blood and water
flow concurrently. That is, in the lamella, the oxygen poor blood flows in an opposite direction to the
oxygen rich water. As the water passes the capillaries in the lamella, the oxygen in the water goes to the
blood. The concurrent arrangement maximizes respiration efficiency.
To keep water flowing into the gills, the fish have specially adaptations. For example, the sharks have to
continually swim with their mouth open to keep water coming through their gills. Some fish are able to
extract water in a stationary position by pumping water in with powerful muscles surrounding the gills.
7
GAMBAR: THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
The circulation of oxygenated blood is essential for the survival of fish. Blood carries oxygen,
nutrients, and waste. To provide the entire fish's body with blood, the heart pumps the blood
throughout the body. The fish's heart has two chambers, the atrium and ventricle. The blood
pumped from the ventricle first goes to the gills where it picks up oxygen and disposed of
carbon dioxide through the thin capillary walls. The oxygenated blood gathers in one central
artery and then goes to the rest of the body and eventually goes back to the atrium. From the
atrium, it goes to the ventricle and the cycle continues. With this system, blood flows relatively
slowly. The muscle contractions of the fish's swimming aids in the movement of blood
throughout the body.
GAMBAR: THE SKELETON
Skeleton of a fish: finned vertebrate animal with skin covered with scales. It lives in water and is usually
oviparous.
Opercular: pair of bony plates covering the gill opening.
Ray of the anterior dorsal fin: each of the small bones forming the front fin on the back of a fish.
Radial cartilage: elastic substance of the radius.
Ray of the posterior dorsal fin: each of the small bones forming the rear fin on the back of a fish.
Neural spine: spine containing part of the nervous system.
Vertebra: each of the bones forming the neural spine of a fish.
Hypural: bone to which are attached the spiny rays of the caudal fin of a fish.
Caudal fin ray: each of the small bones forming the tail fin of a fish.
Anal fin ray: each of the small bones forming the fin behind the anus of a fish.
Radial cartilage: elastic substance of the radius.
Rib: each of the bones forming the thoracic cage.
Pelvic fin ray: each of the bones forming the fin beneath the pelvic girdle.
Pectoral fin ray: each of the bones forming the chest fin.
Pelvic girdle: set of bones forming the pelvis.
Clavicle: shoulder bone.
Lower jaw: mandible.
Orbit: cavity of the skull that contains the eye.
Skull: bony case of the brain of a fish.
9
1. Stomach: First site of chemical digestion, breaks down food
2. Liver: Makes bile (aids in digestion)
3. Gall bladder: Stores bile
4. Esophagus: Tube that leads to the stomach
5. Pancreas: Makes insulin (aids in digestion)
6.Small Intestine (duodenum and ileum): absorb nutrients from food
7. Mesentery: Holds coils of the small intestine together
8. Large Intestine: Collects waste, absorbs water
9. Spleen: Part of circulatory system, stores blood
10. Cloaca: Where sperm, eggs, urine, and feces exit.
11. Artery; take blood away from the heart
12. Vein: take blood toward the heart
13. left atrium pumps blood into the ventricle
14. Right atrium pumps blood into the ventricle
15. Lung: organ for oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange
12
25
1. FEMALE BIRD REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
2. MALE BIRD REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
32
33
GAMBAR: THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
The avian heart has evolved into a large and powerful organ with rapid muscular contractions.
Generally the smaller the species the larger the relative heart size. Generally birds have hearts
larger and ones that beat faster than mammals. The human heart weight amounts to .42
percent of body weight and the pulse rate at rest averages 72 beats per minute. The House
Sparrow's heart constitutes 1.68 percent of the body weight and the pulse rate at rest averages
460 beats per minute. In the Ruby-throated Hummingbird these figures rise to 2.37 percent and
a pulse rate of 615.
35
37
38