Prosedur Handphone

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Pengertian SubjunctiveSubjunctiveadalah bentuk kalimat pengandaian. Namun topik Subjunctive ini berbeda dengan Conditional. Conditional adalah kalimat pengandaian juga namun perbedaannya adalah Conditional dilengkapi dengan syarat-syarat tertentu untuk mengandai-andai. Misalnya Aku akan mengundanya jika aku jadi kamu..Subjunctives adalah sebuah harapan di masa yang akan datang atau bentuk penyesalan dari harapan yang tak terwujud.PEMBAGIAN SUBJUNCTIVES: Present Subjunctives Past Subjunctives Past Perfect SubjunctivesSTRUKTUR SUBJUNCTIVEbe (present)Dalam kalimat Non-Verbal, semua Subject dalam Present Subjunctive menggunakan be, tidak ada isamare. I be you be he, she, it be we be you be they bebe (past)Dalam kalimat Non-Verbal, Semua subject dalam Past Subjunctives memakai were. I were you were he, she, it were we were you were they wereKata kerja lain (past & present)Semua kata kerja harus dalam bentuk Bare Infinitive yaitu tidak mendapat imbuhan apapun seperti s, es, ing, atau -ed. I work you work he, she, it work we work you work they workPENGGUNAAN SUBJUNCTIVEKita menggunakan subjunctives ketika kita berbicara tentang suatu kegiatan yang sebenarnya tidak akan terjadi. Kita menggunakan subjunctive ketika berbicara tentang kegiatan yang seseorang: Inginkan agar terjadi Harapkan akan terjadi Membayangkan akan terjadiContoh: The President requests that you be present at the meeting. It is vital that you be present at the meeting. If you were at the meeting, the President would be happy.Subjunctive biasanya menggunakan kedua struktur berikut: Kata Kerja: ask, command, demand, insist, propose, recommend, request, suggest + that Ekspresi: it is desirable, essential, important, necessary, vital + thatContoh: The manager insists that the car park be locked at night. (Bukan: Thecar parkis locked)(Manager itu berharap agar semua area parkir dikunci pada malam hari) The board of directors recommended that he join the company. (BUKAN: The.that hecould join)(Dewan DIreksi merekomendasikan agar dia dapat bergabung dengan Perusahaan)1. PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVESPresent Subjunctives adalah harapan di masa sekarang maupun di masa yang akan datang. Ciri-ciri dari Present Subjunctives adalah Kata Kerjanya dalam bentuk Bare Infinitive.Contoh: May God bless you!(Semoga Tuhan memberkatimu) Have a good time!(Selamat bersenang-senang) Long live the President!(Semoga Presiden panjang umur!)2. PAST SUBJUNCTIVESPast Subjunctives adalah harapan yang tidak terwujud di masa sekarang. Ciri-ciri dari Past Subjunctives adalah Tenses yang digunakan dalam bentuk Past.Kata/Frase yang sering digunakan dalam Past Subjunctives adalah: Wish If Only As if As though Would rather Its timeWISHKata wish berfungsi untuk:a. Menunjukkan Future TimeRumus:S + wish + would/could + VerbContoh: Its raining. She wishes it would stop.(Hari sedang hujan. Dia berharap hujan akan berhenti)Faktanya: Sekarang masih hujan dan belum berhenti I wish Fatimah could come.(Saya harap Fatimah bisa datang)Faktanya: Fatimah tidak bisa datangb. Menunjukkan Present TimeRumus:S + wish + S + Past VerbContoh: They wish I were there.(Mereka berharap saya ada di sana)Faktanya: Saya tidak ada di sana She wishes I would not come.(Dia berharap saya tidak akan datang)Faktanya: Saya akan datangIF ONLYIf Only yang kita gunakan disini artinya adalah Seandainya.Contoh: If onlyshewerenot here.(Seandainya dia tidak ada disini) If onlytheycouldspeak English.(Seandainya mereka bisa berbicara bahasa Inggris)WOULD RATHERSelain dapat digunakan untuk menjelaskan lebih suka, would rather dapat juga digunakan pada Subjunctives, yang artinya sama, lebih suka.Contoh: Iwould ratheryouwentnow.(Saya lebih suka kamu pergi sekarang) They would rather I not call them.(Mereka lebih suka kalau saya tidak menelpon mereka)AS IF / AS THOUGHAs if dan As though mempunyai fungsi dan arti yang sama, yaitu seolah-olah.Contoh: Edi talks as if he knew everything.(Edi berbicara seolah-olah dia tahu segalanya) They act as though they were the real actors.(Mereka berakting seolah-olah merekalah aktor yang sebenarnya)ITS TIMEIts time disini diartikan dengan Kini saatnya. Ada 2 pola dari Its Time, yaitu: Its time + to infinitives Its time + Subjek + Past FormContoh: Its time to get up.(Waktunya bangun) Its time to go to the movie.(Saatnya pergi ke bioskop) Its time you sent the letter.(Waktunya kamu kirimkan surat itu) Its time I went to school.(Waktunya saya pergi ke sekolah)3. PAST PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVESPast Perfect Subjunctives adalah sebuah ungkapan harapan yang tidak terwujud di masa lampau. Ciri-ciri dari Past Perfect Subjunctives adalah kata kerjanya dalam bentuk Past Perfect.Contoh: Iwishedthey had invited me.(Saya harap mereka telah mengundang saya)Faktanya: They didnt invite me. You talkedas ifyou had been there.(Kamu berbicara seolah-olah kamu ada di sana)Faktanya: You were not there. Theywould ratherI had called them.(Mereka lebih suka kalau saya sudah menghubungi mereka)Faktanya: I didnt call them. If onlyI had rejected him.(Seandainya saya sudah menolaknya)Faktanya: I didnt reject him.SITUASI TIDAK FORMALPada situasi tidak formal, tidak ada aturan main seperti penjelasan di atas.Contoh: She talked as if shewasthere. I wish sheishere.Pokoknya mau formal atau informal, jika kita menggunakan kata-kata sepertiwish, as if, as though, would rather, its timedanif only, maka sebenarnya kita sudah menggunakan bentuk Subjunctives.

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAASubjunctive adalah bentuk kalimat pengandaian. Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan serta untuk mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi.-FutureRumus: S + wish + S + could/would + V/be

Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that. (saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu) I wish she would come to my party to night (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini)-PresentRumus :S + wish + S + V2/were

Contoh:I wish you were old enough to marry me. (saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya) They wish they didnt have to go to school today. (mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah)-PastRumus :S + wished + S + had V3/could have V3

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAASubjunctiveadalah kata kerja yang digunakan untuk membayangkan akibat dari sesuatu yang tidak ada atau tidak terjadi, yang dapat berupawish(harapan),requirements(kebutuhan), dansuggestion(saran). Atau dengan kata lain, makna kalimatsubjunctiveini selalu berlawanan dengan kenyataan atau fakta.

Kata-kata yang digunakan dalamsubjunctiveadalahwish(menginginkan/ mengharapkan),as if/ as though(seolah-olah),would rather(lebih suka),if only(seandainya/ jika saja).

Fungsi Subjunctive

As if/ as thoughdigunakan untuk menyatakan keadaan yang tidak benar kenyataan atau faktanya.

Wish, would rather, dan if onlydigunakan untuk menyatakan suatu harapan atau keinginan.

Rumus Penggunaan Subjunctive

1. Future Subjunctive

Future Subjunctivedigunakan sebagai kalimat pengandaian yang mengacu pada masa yang akan datang, jadi faktanya juga dalam bentukSimple Future Tense.

WishSubject (1) +wish+ Subject (2) + Could / Would +Verb 1

Contoh:Iwishyou would come to the party tonight.(Artinya: Saya berharap kamu akan datang ke pesta nanti malam.)(Faktanya:Hewill notcome to the party tonight)

CATATANWalaupun jarang digunakan, tetapiFuture Subjunctiveterkadang masih sering kita jumpai, jadi lebih baik kita mengenalinya juga. Sebagai gantinya bisa menggunakanPresent Subjunctive.

2. Present Subjunctive

Present Subjunctivedigunakan sebagai kalimat pengandaian yang mengacu pada masa sekarang, jadi faktanya juga dalam bentukSimple Present Tense.

WishSubject (1) +wish+ Subject (2) +Verb 2 / were

As if /As thoughSubject (1) +Verb 1 + as if+ Subject (2) +Verb2 / were

Would ratherSubject (1) +would rather+ Subject (2) +Verb 2 / were

If onlyIf only+ Subject +Verb 2

CATATANPada bentukPresent Subjunctive,kata kerja yang digunakan adalah bentuk ke-2(VERB 2), dan jika harus menggunakanto be, harus menggunakanwereuntuk semua jenisSubject.

Contoh:Iwishyouvisitedme.(Artinya: Saya berharap kamu mengunjungi saya.)(Faktanya:Youdont visitme.)

The girl dressesas ifitweresummer now.(Artinya: Perempuan itu berpakaian seolah-olah sekarang musim panas.)(Faktanya:itis notsummer now.)

Shellywould ratherhetoldthe truth.(Artinya: Shelly lebih suka dia mengatakan yang sebenarnya.)(Faktanya:Hedoesnt tellthe truth.)

If onlysheknew.(Artinya: Seandainya dia tau.)(Faktanya: Shedoesntknow.)

3. Past Subjunctive

Past Subjunctivedigunakan sebagai kalimat pengandaian yang mengacu pada masa lampau, jadi faktanya juga dalam bentukSimple Past Tense.

WishSubject (1) +wished+ Subject (2) +Had + Verb 3 / been

As if /As thoughSubject (1) +Verb 2 + as if+Had +Verb 3 / been

Would ratherSubject (1) +would rather+ Subject 2 +Had + Verb 3 / been

If onlyIf only+ Subject +Had + Verb 3 / been

Contoh:Shewished(that)shehad hadmore time last night.(Artinya: Dia berharap bahwa dia punya waktu lebih kemarin malam.)(Faktanya:Shedidnt havemore time last night.)

Jefflooked as thoughhehad seena ghost.(Artinya: Jeff terlihat seolah-olah dia telah melihat hantu.)(Faktanya:Hedidnt seea ghost.)

Iwould ratherhehad beenhere.(Artinya: Saya lebih suka dia sudah berada disini.)(Faktanya:Hewas nothere.)

If onlyRachelhad not beenat home last night(Artinya: Seandainya Rachel sudah tidak ada di rumah kemarin malam.)(Faktanya:Rachelwasat home last night.)

Untuk informasi selengkapnya silahkan baca juga mengenaiFungsi dan ContohSubjunctivePadaNoun Clause(Klausa Nomina).

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAASubjunctive adalah bentuk kalimat pengandaian. Namun topik Subjunctive ini berbeda dengan Conditional. Conditional adalah kalimat pengandaian juga namun perbedaannya adalah Conditional dilengkapi dengan syarat-syarat tertentu untuk mengandai-andai. Misalnya "Aku akan mengundanya jika aku jadi kamu.". Berikut ini adalah penjelasan tentang Subjunctives.

Struktur Subjunctive

be (past)

* I were * you were * he, she, it were * we were * you were * they were

be (present)

* I be * you be * he, she, it be * we be * you be * they be

Kata kerja lain (past & present)

* I work * you work * he, she, it work * we work * you work * they work

Penggunaan Subjunctive

Kita menggunakan subjunctives ketika kita berbicara tentang suatu kegiatan yang sebenarnya tidak akan terjadi. Kita menggunakan subjunctive ketika berbicara tentang kegiatan yang seseorang:

* Inginkan agar terjadi * Harapkan akan terjadi * Membayangkan akan terjadi

Contoh:

* The President requests that you be present at the meeting. * It is vital that you be present at the meeting. * If you were at the meeting, the President would be happy.

Subjunctive biasanya menggunakan kedua struktur berikut:

* Kata Kerja: ask, command, demand, insist, propose, recommend, request, suggest + that * Ekspresi: it is desirable, essential, important, necessary, vital + that

Contoh:

* The manager insists that the car park be locked at night. * The board of directors recommended that he join the company. * It is essential that we vote as soon as possible. * It was necessary that every student submit his essay by the weekend.

Perhatikan bahwa struktur berikut ini, subjunctive-nya sama. Tidak masalah kalimat itu tenses-nya past atau present. Contoh:

* Present: The President requests that they stop the occupation. * Past: The President requested that they stop the occupation.

* Present: It is essential that she be present. * Past: It was essential that she be present.

Kita selalu menggunakan were sebagai pengganti "was" setelah if (dan kata lainnya yang memiliki arti yang sama). Contoh:

* If I were you, I would ask her. * Suppose she were here. What would you say?

Mengapa kita menggunakan "I were", "he were"?

Kita sering mendengar orang berkata "if I were you, I would go" atau "if he were here, he would tell you". Memang normalnya adalah: I was, he was. Tetapi struktur if I were you tidak melihat Past Tense". Struktur tersebut hanya mengenal past subjunctive untuk "to be" nya. Perhatikan contoh kata-kata/frase di bawah ini untuk struktur di atas:

* if * as if * wish * suppose

* If I were younger, I would go. (FORMAL) * If I was younger, I would go. (INFORMAL) * If he weren't so mean, he would buy one for me.(FORMAL) * If he wasn't so mean, he would buy one for me. (INFORMAL) * I wish I weren't so slow! (FORMAL) * I wish I wasn't so slow! (INFORMAL) * I wish it were longer. (FORMAL) * I wish it was longer. (INFORMAL) * It's not as if I were ugly. (FORMAL) * It's not as if I was ugly. (INFORMAL) * She acts as if she were Queen. (FORMAL) * She acts as if she was Queen. (INFORMAL) * If I were you, I should tell her. (FORMAL) * If I was you, I should tell her. (INFORMAL)

Note: We do not normally say "if I was you", even in familiar conversation.AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAEXPRESSING WISH ( SUBJUNCTIVE )These are two kinds of Subjunctive:I.PRESENTSUBJUNCTIVEa.The use:To express wish very often involving supra natural power (doa ; kutukan)b.The form:The simple present tense, except there is s/es ending for the third person singular.Examples:God Bless you!Heaven be praised!God forgive us!Fuck you!God help us!Darm you!Bedakan:My father lives long. (present tense)Long live my father. (subjunctive)II.PASTSUBJUNCTIVEIt is used to express a condition which is contrary to the real situation.We can used it by using:wish, if only, as if / as though, would rather / sooner, its (high) time.

Pattern 1:Wish ( that ) + Subject + Past tense

The use:It is used to express a regret (=penyesalan) about situation in thepresent.To express a condition which iscontrary to the real situation in present.Examples:Fact / SituationWish Sentences

1.Im very tired2.My father is in the office now3.The children are in the yard4.We live in the country5.My sister works in the evening6.I cant swim now7.She wont come tohelp youI wish (that)...I were not very tired.We wish (that) ...The teacher wishes (that) ...We wish (that) ...She wishes (that) ...I wish (that)...We wish (that) ...

Note:To be in the Subjunctive is WERE for all subjects.--I wishshe werehere.

Pattern 2:Wish ( that ) + Subject + Past perfect tense

The use:It is used to express a regret about situation in thepast.To express a condition which iscontrary to the real situation in the past.

Examples:Fact / SituationWish Sentences

1.I wasntat home yesterday2.My father was so tired3.The children were not at home4.We lived in the small village5.My sister worked very hard6.I couldnt swim last year7.She wouldnt help youI wish (that) ...I had been at home yesterday.We wish (that) ...The teacher wishes (that) ...We wish (that) ...She wishes (that) ...I wish(that) ...We wish(that) ...

EXERCISES 1.Supply appropriate completions in the following.1.The sun isnt shining. I wish the sun ... right now.(were shining)2.I didnt go shopping. I wish I ... shopping.3.I dont know how to dance. I wish I ... how to dance.4.You cant meet my parents. I wish you ... them.5.Jimmy didnt come to the meeting. I wish he ... to the meeting.6.My friend wont lend me her car. I wish she ... me her car tomorrow.7.The teacher is going to give us an exam tomorrow. I wish he ... us an exam tomorrow.8.My sister doesnt have enough money to buy a book. I wish she ... enough money.9.You didnt tell them about it. I wish you ... them about it.10.Martha is tired because she went to bed late last night. She wishes she ... to bed earlier last night.

EXERCISES 2.Supply an appropriate auxiliary or verb in the following.1.Im not at home, but I wish I ...were2.I dont know her, but I wish I ...knew3.I cant sing well, but I wish I ....4.I didnt go, but I wish I ...5.He wont talk about it, but I wish he ...6.I didnt read that book, but I wish I ...7.I want to go, but I cant. I wish I ...8.I dont have a bicycle, but I wish I ...9.He didnt buy a ticket to the game, but he wishes he ...10.She cant speak English, but she wishes she ...11.It probably wont happen, but I wish it ...12.He isnt old enough to drive a car, but he wishes he ...13.They didnt go to the movie, but they wish they ...14.I dont have a drivers license, but I wish I ...15.Im not living in an apartment, but I wish I ...

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAuntuk mengetahui penggunaanSubjunctivepadaNoun Clause.

ContohKeterangan

Our teacherdemandsthat webeon time.(Asalnya: weshould beon time.)

Iinsistedthat hepayme the money.(Asalnya: heshould payme the money.)

Irecommendedthat shenot goto the concert.(Asalnya: sheshould not goto the concert.)

It is importantthat theybe toldthe truth.(Asalnya: theyshould be toldthe truth.)Pada contoh kalimat pertama di samping, fungsibeadalahSubjunctive Verb.

Subjunctivedigunakan padaNoun Clauseyang diikuti oleh kata kerja(verbs), kata sifat(adjectives), dan ekspresi(expressions)tertentu. Pada contoh kalimat di samping,Subjunctive Verbdigunakan hanya dalam bentuk sederhananya. Yakni, tidak mengandung unsur atau bentukpresent,past, ataufuture. Tidak juga tunggal(singular)atau jamak(plural), jadi tidak ada penambahans/-espada kata kerjanya(Verb).

Pada kalimat negatif: not + simple form(bentuk sederhana / dariVerb 1), seperti contohketiga.

Pada kalimat pasif: bentuk sederhana dari be + Verb 3, seperti contohkeempat.

Subjunctivelebih sering digunakan padaAmerican EnglishdaripadaBritish English. PadaBritish English,(should, could, would)+ Verb 1lebih biasa digunakan daripadaSubjunctive. Perhatikan contoh berikut:

-Isuggestedthatshe seea doctor.-Isuggestedthatshe should seea doctor.

Penggunaan kata shouldmungkin untuk digunakan setelah katasuggestdanrecommend.

Kata kerja(verbs)yang lazim diikuti olehSubjunctivepadaNoun Clause

demand (that), suggest (that), insist (that), recommend (that), request (that), advise (that), ask (that), propose (that)

Kata sifat(adjectives)dan ekspresi(expressions)yang lazim diikuti olehSubjunctivepadaNoun Clause

It is important (that), It is necessary (that), It is essential (that), It is vital (that), It is imperative (that)

Fungsi dan Contoh Subjunctive Pada Noun Clause (Klausa Nomina)

Perhatikan Tabel di bawah ini!

FungsiContoh Kalimat

Untuk mengekspresikan kebutuhan(requirements)dan saran(suggestion)dengan menggunakan kata kerja(verbs)yang lazim diikuti olehSubjunctivepadaNoun Clause,yakni:

demand (that), suggest (that), insist (that), recommend (that), request (that), advise (that), ask (that), propose (that).Theyrequestedthat wenot goafter midnight.

Mr. Brianinsiststhat webecareful in our writing.

The doctorrecommendedthat shestayin bed for a few days.

The studentssuggestedwehaveclass outside.

Sheaskedthat webesure to lock the door behind us.

Untuk mengekspresikan kebutuhan(requirements)dengan menggunakan kata sifat(adjectives)dan ekspresi(expressions)yang lazim diikuti olehSubjunctivepadaNoun Clause, yakni:

It is important (that), It is necessary (that), It is essential (that), It is vital (that), It is imperative (that).It is necessarythat everyonecomehere on time.

It is essentialthat pollutionbe controlledand eventuallybe eliminated.

It is vitalthat no oneknowabout the secret government operation.

It is necessarythat everyonecomehere on time.

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAASubjunctive Wish - If only - Would ratherThe past tense is sometimes used in English to refer to an 'unreal' situation. So, although the tense is the past, we are usually talking about the present, e.g. in a Type 2 conditional sentence:If an elephant and a mousefellin love, they would have many problems.Althoughfellis in the past tense, we are talking about a hypothetical situation that might exist now or at any time, but we arenotreferring to the past. We call this use theunreal past.Other situations where this occurs are: after other words and expressions like'if'(supposing, if only, what if); after the verb'to wish'; after the expression'I'd rather..'Expressions like'if'The following expressions can be used to introduce hypothetical situations:-supposing, if only, what if. They are followed by apast tenseto indicate that the condition they introduce is unreal: Supposing an elephant and a mousefellin love? (= but we know this is unlikely or impossible) What if wepaintedthe room purple? (= that would be very surprising) If onlyI hadmore money. (= but I haven't).These expressions can also introduce hypothetical situations in the past and then they are followed by thepast perfect.Examples If only Ihadn't kissedthe frog (= I did and it was a mistake because he turned into a horrible prince, but I can't change it now.) What if the elephanthad troddenon the mouse? (She didn't, but we can imagine the result!) Supposing Ihad giventhat man my money! (I didn't, so I've still got my money now.)The verbto wishThe verbto wishis followed by an 'unreal' past tense when we want to talk about situations in the present that we are not happy about but cannot change: I wish Ihadmore money (=but I haven't) She wishes shewasbeautiful (= but she's not) We wish wecouldcome to your party (but we can't)When we want to talk about situations in the past that we are not happy about or actions that we regret, we use the verbto wishfollowed by the past perfect: I wish Ihadn't saidthat (= but I did) He wishes hehadn't boughtthe car (= but he did buy it.) I wish Ihad takenthat job in New York (= but I didn't, so I'm stuck in Bristol)NOTE: When we want to talk about situations we are not happy about and where we wantsomeone elseto change them, we useto wishfollowed bywould + infinitive: I wish hewould stopsmoking. (= I don't like it, I wanthimto change it) I wish youwould goaway. (= I don't want you here, I wantyouto take some action) I wish youwouldn't squeezethe toothpaste from the middle! (= I want you to change your habits.)I'd ratherandit's time...These two expressions are also followed by an unreal past. The verb is in the past tense, but the situation is in the present.When we want to talk about a course of action we would prefer someone else to take, we useI'd rather + past tense: I'd rather youwent He'd rather youcalledthe police I'd rather youdidn'thunt elephants.NOTE: the stress can be important in these sentences, to show what our preference is: I'd ratheryouwent= not me, I'd rather youwent=don't stay He'd ratheryoucalled the police= he doesn't want to He'd rather you called thepolice= not the ambulance serviceSimilarly, when we want to say thatnowis a suitable moment to do something, either for ourselves or for someone else, we useit's time + past tense: It's (high) time Iwent. It's time youpaidthat bill. Don't you think it's time youhada haircut?AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAASubjunctive 106MARDalam kehidupan sehari-hari kamu pasti pernah mengalami suatu kejadian yang nggak sesuai dengan yang kamu harapkan. Akhirnya kamu cuma bisa berharap terjadi sebaliknya atau berandai-andai saja. Misalnya,1. Saya berharap bisa mengerjakan test dengan baik. (Faktanya: saya nggak bisa kerjakan tes dengan baik sekarang) I wish I could do the test well.2. Saat ini saya tidak tahu jawaban yang benar , tapi saya sungguh berharap saya tahu . I don`t know the correct answer now, but I really wish Iknew3. Para pelajar berharap gurunya tidak marah sama mereka kemarin.(faktanya: kemarin mereka dimarahi sama gurunya) The students wishedtheir teacher hadn`t beenangry with them.Jadi ketika kamuberharap ungkapkan dengan:1. wish+Past Tense (untukharapanyangberlawanandengankenyataansekarangini.Lihat contoh a dan b di atas)2. wish + Past Perfect(Untukharapanyangberlawanandengankenyataanyang terjaditadi,baru saja, kemarin,tadi malam, atau yang lalu. Lihat contoh c)sedangkan untukberandai-andai, gunakan pola:1. If only + Past Tense . (Berandai-andai sekarang/saat ini)Contoh:Andai dia bisa kesini hari ini. (Faktanya: hari ini dia tidak bisa kesini)If only shecouldbe here today2. If only+Past Perfect. (Berandai-andai tadi, barusaja,kemarin,tadi malam,atau yang lalu)ContohAndai anaknya telah belajar lebih giat tadi malam . (Faktanya : Tadi malam anaknya tidak belajar giat)If only his son had studied harder last nightTidak jarang kamu juga menemui teman yang sok tahu atau kita sebut sajaMr.Know-all. Dia seakan-akan tahu semuanya.So,ketika kamu ingin mengungkapkan bahwa apa yang dia atau mereka perbuat atau katakan tidak sesuai dengan fakta yang sebenarnya, gunakan:As if. atauas though(seakan-akan/ seolah-olah)Misalnya ,1. As if + Past Tense (faktanya berlawanan dengan kondisi saat ini)ContohPak Bual ngomong seakan-akan dia tahu segalanya. (faktanya dia nggak tahu apa-apa)Mr. Bual talked as though hekneweverything2. As if + Past Perfect) ( faktanya berlawanan dengan kenyataan tadi, baru saja, kemarin, tadi malam atau yang lalu)ContohKemarin Jesica melihatku seolah-olah dia nggak kenal aku sebelumnya. (fakta sebenarnya dia kenal aku sebelumnya. Dia hanya pura-pura tidak kenal)Yesterday Jesica saw me as if shehadn`t recognizedme before.Subjunctive dibagi ke dalam 3 kelompok besar, yaitu:

(1) Subjunctive (hope) a) Future Subjunctive b) Present Subjunctive c) Past Subjunctive

(2) Subjunctive if only a) Present Subjunctive b) Past Subjunctive

(3) Subjunctive would rather (preference) a) Present Subjunctive b) Past Subjunctive

Catatan Penting:*) pada subjunctive haruslah ada wish/wishes dan S1 (siapa saja yang berharap). Jika I, you, we, they maka wish. Jika he, she, it, maka wishes.*) Saat fakta dalam keadaan kalimat positif maka, subjunctive dalam keadaan kalimat negatif, begitu pun sebaliknya.*) Kata was diganti dengan were.

Di Subjunctive (hope) terbagi dalam 3 tensis,

1. Future Subjunctive ialah faktanya berbentuk future.example 1 : He wishes I brought a candy to him next week. S1 wish S2 V2 O C

Fact 1 : I will not bring a candy to him next week. S2 modal V1 O C

example 2 : They wish I could not went to party tonight. S1 wish S2 canv2 V2 O C

Fact 2 : I can go to party tonight. S2 can V1 O C

Keterangan:S1 subjek (noun),wish/wishes, wish jika subjeknya I, you, we, they, dan wishes jika subjeknya he, she, it.S2 subjek (noun),O objek dari S2, danC keterangan.

*) Modal pada fakta yaitu present future, bisa can/can't atau will/won't. Dan di subjunctive-nya haruslah past future, could not (-) dan could (+) untuk can. V2 (+) dan didn't + V2 (-) untuk will.*) Verb (kata kerja) jika pada fakta V1 maka pada subjunctivenya V2.

2.Past Subjunctive ialah faktanya berbentuk past (lampau)example : He wishes I had not bought a car last night. S1 wish S2 havev2 V3 O C

fact : I bought a car last year. S2 V1 O C

*) Verb. Di fakta haruslah V2 dengan keterangan waktu (C) lampau seperti last, ago, before, dan sebagainya. Jika (+) maka verb-nya harus V2 dan jika (-) maka didn't + V1. Dan pada subjunctive-nya haruslah past perfect (bingunng??) yang rumusnya S + had + V3. Jika (+) maka setelah S2 harus ada had + V3 dan apabila (-) maka harus hadn't + V3.

3. Present Subjunctive ialah kata yang faktanya Present (sekarang).example : I wish He didn't cut a paper. S wish S didnt v1 Ofact : He cut a paper. S v1 O

*) Verb. pada fakta jika (+) maka harus V1 dan jika (-) harus ada don't untuk I, you, we, they dan doesn't untuk He, she, it. Dan pada sybjunctive-nya, jika (+) maka V2 dan jika (-) maka didn't + V1.

Singkatnya kalau faktanya present maka subjunctivenya past, jika past maka subjunctive-nya past perfect. So, fakta tidak mungkin past perfect dan subjunctive tidak mungkin present.AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAsubjunctive

Sesuai dengan ruang lingkup materi, kalimat subjunctive yang diperkenalkan dalam bab ini adalah kalimat subjunctive yang menggunakanwish(ingin),if only(jika,hanya jika),would rather(lebih suka) danas ifatauas though(seolah-olah). Kalimat subjunctive yang menggunakanwish,if onlydanwould ratherdigunakan untuk menyatakan suatu keinginan. Sedang kalimat subjunctive yang menggunakanas ifatauas thoughdigunakan untuk menyatakan sifat atau keadaan yang tidak benar adanya.Kata kerja atauto beyang digunakan dalam kalimat subjunctive selalu dalam bentukPast Tense, baikSimple PastmaupunPast Perfect Tense.

Bentuk Kalimat Subjunctive Dan Fakta

1.Present SubjunctiveKalimat subjunctive ini menunjukkan pada keadaan sekarang. Kata kerja yang digunakan dalam bentukSimple PastTense.To beuntuk semua kata ganti adalahwere.Contoh I wish shewerehere (faktanya : sheisnthere) He wishes Iwentto the meeting (faktanya : Idontgoto the meeting) If only theyweremy friends (faktanya : Theyarentmy friends) If only hedidntask me (faktanya : Heasksme). He behaves as if hewerethe owner of the hotel (faktanya : Heisntthe owner of the hotel). She stares at me as though shedidnt knowme (faktanya : Sheknowsme)

2.Past SubjunctivePast Subjunctive menunjukkan pada keadaan waktu lampau. Kata kerja yang digunakan bentuknyaPast Perfect Tense.Contoh I wish shehad beenhere (faktanya : Shewasnthere). He wishes Ihad goneto the meeting (faktanya : Ididntgo to the meeting). If only theyhad beenmy friends (faktanya : Theywere notmy friends). If only hehadnt askedme (faktanya : Heaskedme). She would rather hehad beenat home with me yesterday (faktanya : Hewasntat home with me yesterday) I would rather youhad toldme the news(faktanya : Youdidnt tellme the news). He behaved as if hehad beenthe owner of the hotel (faktanya : hewasntthe owner of the hotel). She stared at me as thogh shehadnt knownme (faktanya : Sheknewme).

3. Subjunctive would rather untuk pilihan lebih suka1. a.Present tense

subject + would rather (that) + subject + past tense

I would rather youtoldme the news (faktanya : Youdont tellme the news) Ali would rather itwerenotcold now (faktanya : It iscoldnow) He would rather youcameto the party (faktanya : Youdont cometo the party) I would rather youpaidby cash (faktanya : Youdont payby cash)

b.Past tense

subjek + would rather (that) + subjek + past perfect

Ali would rather Ahmadhad goneto class yesterday (faktanya : Ahmaddidnt goto class yesterday) Budi would rather that ithad not beencold last night (faktanya : Itwascold last night)

4.Indikator subjunctive

subject + verb (that) + subject + present verb

Jenis kata kerja yang sering digunakan adalah

AdviseAskCommandDecreedDesireDemandInsistMoveOrderPreferProposeRecommendRequireStipulateSuggestUrge

When a patients blood pressure is much higher than it should be, a doctor usuallyinsist thathe not smoke (asalnya should not smoke) The doctorsuggested (that)his patient stop smoking (asalnya his patient should not smoke) The managerasks thatpeople in the theatre not smoke (asalnya should not smoke) Alis advisormoves thatthe meeting be adjourned (penasehat Ali mengusulkan agar pertemuan ditunda)

@CatatanKata that dapat dihilangkan dari kalimat tersebut

Juga dapat digunakan dengan pola

It + be + adjective verb + (that) + subject + present verb

Adapun verb/ adjective yang sering digunakan untuk susunan kalimat ini

AdvisedImportantMandatoryNecessaryObligatoryProposedRecommendedRequiredSuggestedUrgentImperative

It isnecessary thathe find the books (asalnya his patient should find the books) It wassuggested thatthe meeting be adjourned (asalnya should be adjourned) It wasurgent thatshe leave at once (asalnya she should leave at once) It isimportant thatyou remember this rule (asalnya you should remember this rule) It has beenproposed thatwe not change the topic (asalnya we should not change the topic)

Subjunctive digunakan untuk mengungkapkan kejadian , keinginan ataupun kenyataan yang bertentangan dengan apa yang sesungguhnya ada atau terjadi .

1. Wisha. FuturePola :[Subject + wish(that) + subject + would/could + V1] I wish you would stop saying that .b. PresentPola :[Subject + wish(that) + subject + V2/were] We wish that you were old enough to come with us .c. PastPola :[Subject + wished(that) + subject + had + V3] She wished that she had had more time during the exams .

2. As if / as thougha. PresentPola :[S1 + V1 + as if / as though + S2 + V2 + S + V2] The old lady dresses as if it were winter even in summer .b. PastPola :[S + V2 + as if / as though + S + had + V3] Jeff looked as if he had seen a ghost .

3. Would Rathera. PresentPola :[S1 + would rather + S2 + V2 + ket. Waktu sekarang] Jane would rather it were winter now .b. PastPola :[S1 + would rather + S2 + had V3 + ket. Waktu sekarang] Jim would rather it were winter now