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Transcript of ADA Standard 1994

  • 8/9/2019 ADA Standard 1994


    Department of Justice

    28 CFR Part 36

    Revised as of July 1, 1994

    Nondiscrimination on the Basis of

    Disability by Public Accommodations

    and in Commercial Facilitiesc






    Excerpt from 2 8 CFR Part 3 6 :

    ADA S tanda rds for

    Access ible Des ign

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    Pt. 36, App. A 28 CFR Ch. I (7-1-94 Edition)




    1 . P URP OS E . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . 1

    2 . GENERAL . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . 1

    2.1 Pr ovisio n s for Adu lts ............................................................................................. 1

    2.2* Equ ivalen t Facili tation . ....... . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . 1

    3 . MISCELLANEOUS INSTRUCTIONS AND DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    3.1 Graph ic Con ven tion s ........ .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . 1

    3.2 Dimen s ion al Tolera n ces ........ .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . 2

    3.3 Notes ...................................................................................................................... 2

    3.4 Gen er al Term in ology ............................................................................................. 2

    3.5 Definit ion s ............................................................................................................. 2


    SCOPE AND TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

    4.1 Minim u m Requ irem en ts ....... . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . 5

    4.1 .1* Applicat ion ............................................................................................... 54.1.2 Acces sible Si tes an d Exter ior Faci li t ies : New Con st ru ct ion .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . 5

    4.1.3 Acce s s ible Bu ildings : New Con s tru ction ........ . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . 7

    4.1 .4 (Res er ved) ................................................................................................. 10

    4.1.5 Acces s ible Buildings : Addition s ........ . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . 10

    4.1.6 Acces s ible Buildings : Alter ation s . ....... . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. 11

    4.1.7 Acces s ible Bui ldings : Histor ic Pres ervat ion .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . 13

    4.2 Sp ace Allowanc e an d Reac h Ran ges ........ . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . 14

    4.3 Acces s ible Rou te ................................................................................................. 15

    4.4 Pro tru din g Objects ....... . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . 21

    4.5 Grou n d an d Floor Su rfaces ........ . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . 22

    4.6 Park ing and Pa s s en ger Loadin g Zon es ........ .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . 24

    4.7 Cu rb Ram ps ......................................................................................................... 264.8 Ram ps .................................................................................................................. 27

    4.9 Sta irs .................................................................................................................... 30

    4.1 0 Elevato rs ............................................................................................................ 30



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    Pt. 36, App. ADepartment of Justice

    4.11 Platform Lifts (Wh eelch air Lifts )........ . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. 36

    4.1 2 Win do ws ............................................................................................................. 36

    4.1 3 Doo rs .................................................................................................................. 36

    4.1 4 En tr an ce s ........................................................................................................... 40

    4.15 Drink ing Fou n tain s an d Wate r Cooler s ....... . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. 40

    4.1 6 Wat er Clos ets ..................................................................................................... 40

    4.1 7 Toilet Sta lls ........................................................................................................ 41

    4.1 8 Urina ls ................................................................................................................ 44

    4.19 Lavato ries an d Mirrors ....... . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . 44

    4.2 0 Bath tu bs ............................................................................................................. 45

    4.2 1 Sh owe r St alls ..................................................................................................... 45

    4.2 2 Toilet Room s ...................................................................................................... 45

    4.23 Bath room s, Bath ing Faci l it ies , an d Sh ower Room s .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . 48

    4.2 4 Sin k s .................................................................................................................. 49

    4.2 5 St or age ............................................................................................................... 49

    4.26 Han drai ls , Grab Bars , an d Tub a nd Sh ower S eats . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . 50

    4.27 Con tro ls an d Opera tin g Mech an ism s ........ .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . 514.2 8 Alar m s ................................................................................................................ 52

    4.2 9 Dete ct ab le War n in gs .......................................................................................... 53

    4.3 0 Sign age ............................................................................................................... 53

    4.3 1 Telep h on es ......................................................................................................... 54

    4.32 Fixed or Built-in Sea tin g an d Tables ....... . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . 56

    4.3 3 Ass em bly Areas ................................................................................................. 56

    4.34 Au tom ate d Teller Mach ine s ........ .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. 58

    4.35 Dres s ing an d Fitt ing Room s ........ .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. 58

    5 . RESTAUR ANTS AND CAF ETERIAS . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 5 9

    6 . MED ICAL CARE FACILITIES . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 6 0

    7 . BUSI NESS AND MERCAN TILE . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . 6 1

    8 . LIBRA RIES . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 6 2

    9 . ACCESS IBLE TRANSI ENT LODGING . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . 6 3

    1 0 .TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 7

    A PP END IX . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . A1



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    Pt. 36, App. A 28 CFR Ch. I (7-1-94 Edition)

    49 2

    1 . PURPOS E. 2 . GENERAL.




    3 .1 Graphic Convent ions . Graphicconventions are s hown in Table 1. Dimen-sions th at are not marked minimum ormaximum are absolute, unless otherwiseindicated in th e text or captions .

    This document sets guidelines for accessibil-

    i ty to places of public accomm odation a ndcom m ercial facilities by individua ls withdisabilities. These guidelines are to be appliedduring the des ign, cons truction, an d alter-ation of su ch bu ildings a nd facilities to theextent required by regulations iss ued byFederal agen cies, including the Departm ent ofJus tice, under the Am erican s w ith Disa bilitiesAct of 1990.

    The tech nical specifications 4.2 through 4.35,of these guidelines a re the sam e as th ose ofthe Am erican National Sta nda rd Ins titutesdocum ent A117.1-1980, except as noted in thistext by italics. Howev er, sections 4.1.1 th rough

    4.1.7 an d sections 5 through 10 are differentfrom A NSI A117.1 in th eir entirety an d a reprinted in sta nda rd type.

    The illustrations an d text of ANSI A117.1 arereproduced w ith perm ission from the Am eri-can National Sta nda rds Institute. Copies ofthe stan dard m ay be purcha sed from th eAm erican Nationa l Stan dards Ins titute a t1430 Broadw ay, New York, New York 10018.

    2 .1 Provis ions for Adults . The s pecifica-

    tions in th ese guidelines are based u pon a dult dimensions and anthropometrics.

    2 .2 * Equivalent Facilitation. Departuresfrom particular techn ical an d sco ping require-m ents of this guideline by the u se of otherdesigns an d technologies are perm itted wh erethe a lterna tive designs a nd technologies u sedwill provide su bsta ntially equivalent orgreater acces s to a nd u sa bility of the facility.


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    3 .2 Dimensional Tolerances . All dimen-sions are su bject to conventional buildingindus try tolerances for field conditions.

    3 .3 No tes . The text ofthese guidelines does

    not con tain notes or footnotes . Additionalinformation, explanations, and advisorymaterials are located in the Appendix. Para-graphs m arked with an as terisk h ave related,non man datory material in the Appendix. Inthe Appendix, the correspon ding paragraphnu mbers are preceded by an A.

    3 .4 General Terminology.

    com ply with. Meet on e or mo re s pecificationsofthese guidelines.

    if, if ... th en . Denotes a s pecification th atapplies on ly when th e conditions des cribed

    are present.

    may. Denotes an option or alternative.

    sh all. Denotes a man datory specification orrequirement.

    sh ould. Denotes an advisory specification orrecommendation.

    3 .5 Defin i tions .

    Access Aisle. An acces sible pedestrian s pacebetween elements, su ch as parking spaces,

    seating, and desk s, that provides clearancesappropriate for us e of the elemen ts.

    Accessible. Describes a s ite, bu ilding, facility,or portion th ereof that complies with theseguidelines.

    Accessible Element. An element sp ecified bythese guidelines (for examp le, teleph on e,controls, an d th e like).

    Accessible Route. A continuous un ob-stru cted path conn ecting all accessibleelemen ts an d sp aces of a bu ilding or facility.Interior access ible rou tes may include corri-dors , floors, ram ps , elevators , lifts, an d clearfloor spa ce at fixtures . Exterior acces sibleroutes may include park ing access aisles,curb ramps, crosswa lks at vehicular wa ys ,walks , ramps , and lifts.

    3 .4 General Terminology

    Access ib le Space . Spa ce that com plies withthese guidelines.

    Adaptability. The a bility of certain bu ildingspaces and elements , such as kitchen

    counters, s ink s, and grab bars, to be added oraltered so as to accommodate the n eeds ofindividuals w ith or with out disa bilities or toaccomm odate the needs of person s withdifferen t types or d egrees of disa bility.

    Addi t ion. An expa ns ion, extens ion, or in-crease in th e gross floor area of a bu ilding orfacility.

    Adminis trative Authority. A governmentalagency that adopts or enforces regulationsand guidelines for the des ign, cons truction, oralteration of buildings an d facilities .

    Al terat ion. An a lteration is a cha nge to abuilding or facility m ade by, on beh alf of, orfor the u se of a pu blic accom m odation orcom m ercial facility, that a ffects or couldaffect the u sa bility of the bu ilding or facilityor part th ereof. Alterations include, but a renot lim ited to, rem odeling, renov ation , reha -bilitation, reconstruct ion, historic restoration,chan ges or rearran gemen t of the structuralparts or elements , and chan ges or rearran ge-m ent in the plan configuration of walls andfull-height pa rtitions . Norm al m aint ena nce,reroofing, pa intin g or wa llpapering, orchan ges to mecha nical and electrical sys -

    tem s a re not alterations u nless th ey affectthe us ability of the bu ilding or facility.

    Area of Rescu e Ass i s ta nce . An a rea, wh ichha s direct access to an exit , wh ere people wh oare unable to use s tairs m ay rema in tem po-rarily in s afety to aw ait further ins tructions orassistance during emergency evacuation.

    Ass embly Area. A room or space accom modat-ing a group ofindividuals for recr eation al,educational, political, social, or amu sem entpurpos es, or for the con su mption of food anddrink.

    Automatic Door. A door equ ipped with apower-operated mechanism and controls thatopen an d close th e door automatically uponreceipt of a m omen tary actuating signal. Theswitch that begins th e autom atic cycle may bea photoelectric device, floor mat, or manualswitch (see power-assisted door).


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    Pt. 36, App. A 28 CFR Ch. I (7-1-94 Edition)

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    Building. Any stru cture us ed and intended forsu pporting or sh eltering any use or occu pancy.

    Circulation Path. An exterior or inte rior wayof pass age from o ne p lace to anoth er for

    pedestrians , including, but n ot limited to,walks , hallways, cou rtyards, stairways, an dstair landings.

    Clear. Unobstructed.

    Clear Floor Sp ac e . The min imu m unob-struct ed floor or groun d s pace required toaccom m odate a single, sta tiona ry wh eelchairand occupant .

    Closed Circui t Te lephone. A telephone withdedicated line(s) such a s a hous e phone,courtesy phone or phone that m ust be us ed togain en tran ce to a facility.

    Common Use. Refers to th ose interior andexterior rooms , spaces, or elemen ts th at arema de available for th e us e of a res tricted groupof people (for example, occupants of a hom e-less sh elter, the occupan ts of an office build-ing, or the gues ts of su ch occu pants ).

    Cross Slope. The slope that is perpen dicularto th e direction of travel (se e ru nn ing slope).

    Curb Ramp . A sh ort ramp cutting through acurb or built up to it.

    Detectable Warning. A sta nda rdized surfacefeatu re built in or applied to wa lking su rfacesor other elem ents to wa rn visu ally impairedpeople of haz ards on a circulation path .

    Dwelling Unit. A sin gle un it which provides akitchen or food preparation area, in addition torooms and spaces for living, bathing, sleeping,and th e like.Dw elling un its include a s inglefamily hom e or a townh ouse used as atran sient group h om e; an apartm ent buildingus ed as a sh elter; guestrooms in a hotel thatprovide sleeping a ccomm odations a nd foodpreparation areas ; an d oth er sim ilar facilitiesus ed on a tran sient bas is. For purposes of

    thes e guidelines , us e of the term DwellingUnitdoes not imply the u ni t is u sed as aresidence.

    Egress , Means of . A cont inuous and un ob-structed wa y of exit travel from an y point in abuilding or facili ty to a public w ay. A m eans ofegress com prises vertical an d horizonta l

    travel an d m ay include intervening roomspaces, doorways, hallways, corridors, pas-sa geway s, balconies, ram ps, stairs, enclosures,lobbies, horizon tal exits, courts an d ya rds. Anaccess ible m ean s of egress is one tha t com-

    plies w ith these gu idelines an d does not in-clude s tairs, steps , or escala tors. Areas of res-cue ass istance or evacua tion elevators m ay beincluded as part of access ible mea ns of egress.

    Element . An a rchitectural or m echanicalcom ponen t of a building, facility, spa ce, or site,e.g., telepho ne, curb ram p, door, drink ingfoun tain , sea ting, or wa ter closet.

    Entrance. Any access point to a building orportion of a building or facility us ed for thepurpose of entering. An en trance includes theapproach w alk, the vertical access leading tothe en tran ce platform , the en trance platform

    itse lf, ves tibu les if provided, the en try door(s) orgate(s), an d the h ardwa re of the ent ry door(s)or gat e(s).

    Fa cili ty. All or any portion of bu ildings, struc-tures, site im provem ents , com plexes, equip-m ent, roads, walks , pass agew ay s, parking lots,or other real or persona l property located on asite.

    Ground Floor. Any occu piable floor less th anone s tory above or below grade with directacces s to grade. A building or facility alw ay shas at least one ground f loor and m ay have

    m ore tha n on e groun d floor as wh ere a s plit level entran ce ha s been provided or wh ere abuilding is bu ilt into a h illside.

    Mezzanine or Mezzanine Floor. That portionof a story w hich is an interm ediate floor levelplaced within the s tory a nd h aving occupiablespa ce above a nd below its floor.

    Marked Cross ing. A cross walk or oth eridentified path inten ded for pedes trian us e incros sin g a veh icular way.

    Multifamily Dwelling. Any building contain-ing more th an two dwelling un its.

    Occupiable . A room or enclosed spa ce de-signed for hu m an occupa ncy in wh ich indi-vidua ls congregate for am us em ent, educa-tiona l or sim ilar purposes , or in wh ich occu-pan ts a re enga ged at labor, and w hich isequipped with m ean s of egress, l ight, andventilation.

    3 . 5 Def i n i t i ons


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    Operable Part. A part of a piece of equ ipmen tor appliance u sed to insert or withdraw objects,or to activate, deactivate, or adjus t the eq uip-me nt o r appliance (for example, coin s lot,pus hbutton, h andle).

    Path of Trav el . (Reserved).

    Power-as si st ed Do or. A door us ed for hu m anpassage with a m echanism th at helps to openthe door, or relieves the opening res istance of adoor, upon th e activation of a switch or acontinued force applied to the door itself.

    Public Use. Describes interior or exteriorrooms or spaces that are m ade available to thegenera l public. Pu blic us e ma y be provided at abu ilding or facility th at is privately or pu bliclyowned.

    Ramp. A walking su rface which has a run ningslope greater than 1 :20.

    Running Slope. The s lope that is parallel toth e direction of travel (se e cros s s lope).

    Service Entrance. An entrance intendedprimarily for d elivery of goods or s ervices .

    Signage.Displayedverbal, s ymbolic, tactile,and pictorial information.

    Site. A parcel of land bou nd ed by a propertyline o r a des ign ated port ion of a pu blic


    Site Improvement. Lands caping, paving forpedestrian and vehicular ways, outdoor light-ing, recreation al facilities, an d th e like, adde dto a site.

    Sleeping Accommodations. Rooms in wh ichpeople sleep; for example, dormitory and hotelor motel guest rooms or suites.

    Space . A defina ble a rea, e.g., room , toiletroom, hall, as sem bly area, entran ce, storageroom , alcov e, cou rtya rd, or lobby.

    Story . Tha t portion of a building includedbetween the u pper surface of a f loor and u ppersu rface of the floor or roof next above. If su ch

    portion of a bu ilding does n ot include occu pi-able spa ce, it is n ot cons idered a s tory forpurposes of thes e guidelines. There m ay bem ore tha n on e floor level within a story as inthe case of a m ezzan ine or m ezzan ines .

    S tructural Frame. The stru ctural frame sh allbe considered to be the colum ns and thegirders, beams, truss es and s pandrels havingdirect connections to the column s and allother mem bers which are essen tial to thes tability of th e bu ilding as a whole.

    Tactile. Describes an object that can beperceived us ing the s ens e of touch .

    Text Telephon e. Machinery or equipm enttha t em ploys in teractive graph ic (i.e., typed)comm unicat ions through the trans m ission of coded signals a cross th e stan dard telephone

    netw ork. Text telephon es can include, forexam ple, devices k now n a s TDDs (telecommu-nication display devices or telecomm un ica-tion devices for deaf persons ) or compu ters.

    Trans ient Lodging. A bu ilding, facility, orportion th ereof, excludin g inpat ient m edicalcare facilities, that con tain s on e or m oredwelling units or sleeping accom m odations.Tran sient lodging m ay include, but is notlim ited to, resorts, group hom es, hotels,m otels, an d dormitories.

    Vehicular Way. A rou te inten ded for veh icular

    traffic, su ch a s a s treet, driveway, or parkin glot.

    Walk. An exterior path way with a pr eparedsu rface intended for pedestrian u se, includinggeneral pedestrian areas su ch as plazas andcourts.

    NOTE: Sections 4 .1.1 throu gh 4.1.7 aredifferen t from ANSI A117.1 in th eir en tirety an dare pr inted in sta nd ard type (ANSI A117.1 do esnot include s coping provisions).

    3 . 5 Def i n i t i ons


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    Pt. 36, App. A 28 CFR Ch. I (7-1-94 Edition)

    49 6





    4 .1 Minimum Requirements

    4.1 .1* Appl icat ion.

    (1) General. All areas of newly designed ornewly constructed buildings and facilitiesrequired to be acces sible by 4.1.2 an d 4.1.3 andaltered portions of existing buildings andfacilities required to be accessible by 4.1.6sh all comply with th ese guidelines, 4.1throu gh 4.35, unless otherwise provided in

    this section or as m odified in a s pecial applica-tion section.

    (2) Application Bas ed o n Building Use.Special application sections 5 throu gh 10provide additional requiremen ts for res tau-rants and cafeterias, medical care facilities,bus iness and m ercantile, libraries, accessibletrans ient lodging, and trans portation facilities.When a bu ilding or facility contains more thanone us e covered by a s pecial applicationsection, each portion sh all comply with therequirements for that u se.

    (3)* Areas Use d On ly by Employees as Work

    Areas. Areas th at are us ed only as work areassh all be designed and constructed s o thatindividuals with disabilities can approach,enter, and exit the areas . Thes e guidelines donot requ ire that an y areas u sed on ly as workareas be con structed to permit man euveringwithin th e work area or be cons tructed orequ ipped (i.e., with rack s or sh elves ) to beaccessible.

    (4) Temporary Structures. These guidelinescover tempo rary buildings or facilities as wellas permanent facilities. Temporary buildingsand facilities are not of perman ent con stru c-tion but are extens ively us ed or are ess entialfor pu blic u se for a period of time. Examples o ftem porary bu ildings o r facilities covered bythes e guidelines include, bu t are not limited to:reviewing stands , temporary class rooms ,bleacher areas , exhibit areas, temporarybank ing facilities, tem porary health s creeningservices, or tem porary safe pedes trian pass age-ways around a construction s ite. Structures,

    sites an d equipmen t directly associated withthe actual processes of constru ction, su ch assc affolding, bridging, mat erials h oists , orcons truction trailers are not included.

    (5) Gen eral Exceptions .

    (a) In new con stru ction, a person or en tity isnot requ ired to meet fully the requ irements ofthes e guidelines where that person or en titycan dem ons trate that it is stru cturally imprac-ticable to do so. Full compliance will be cons id-ered s tructu rally impracticable only in th oserare circums tances when th e un ique charac-teristics of terrain prevent the incorporation ofacces sibility features . If fu ll compliance withthe requ irements of thes e guidelines is struc-turally impracticable, a person or en tity sh allcomply with the requ irements to the extent itis not structurally impracticable. Any portion

    of th e bu ilding or facility which can be m adeaccess ible s hall comply to the extent that it isnot stru cturally impracticable.

    (b) Acces sibility is n ot r equ ired to (i) obs er-vation galleries u se d primarily for se cu ritypurposes; or (ii) in non-occupiable spacesaccess ed on ly by ladders, catwalks, crawlspaces, very narrow passageways, or freight(non -pass enger) elevators, an d frequented onlyby service personn el for repair purposes ; suchspaces include, but are n ot limited to, elevatorpits, elevator penth ous es, piping or equ ipmentcatwalks.

    4 .1 .2 Accessible Sites and ExteriorFacilities: New Cons truction. An access iblesite sh all meet th e following m inimum require-ments:

    (1) At least one accessible route complyingwith 4.3 sh all be provided within the boun daryof the s ite from pu blic trans portation stops ,access ible parking spaces, pass enger loadingzones if provided, and pu blic s treets or s ide-walks , to an acces sible building entrance.

    (2) At least one accessible route complyingwith 4.3 sh all conn ect access ible buildings,

    access ible facilities, access ible elemen ts, an daccessible spaces th at are on the s ame s ite.

    (3) All objects t ha t protru de from s ur faces orposts into circulation path s s hall comply with4.4.


    4 .0 Access ible Elements and Spaces : Scope and Technical Requirements

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    (4) Ground su rfaces along access ible rou tesand in access ible spaces sh all comply with 4.5.

    (5) (a) If par k ing s paces are p rovided forse lf-park ing by em ployees or visitors , or both,

    then access ible spaces complying with 4.6sh all be provided in each su ch park ing area inconformance with the table below. Spacesrequired by the table n eed n ot be provided inth e particu lar lot. They may be provided in adifferen t location if equ ivalent or greateracces sibility, in ter ms of distan ce from a naccess ible entran ce, cost and convenience isensured.


    Total Parking Minimum Number

    in Lot of Acces s ible Spaces

    1 to 25 1

    26 to 50 251 to 75 3

    76 to 100 4101 to 150 5151 to 200 6201 to 300 7301 to 400 8401 to 500 9

    501 to 1000 2 percen t of total1001 an d over 20, plu s 1 for each

    100 over 1000

    Except as provided in (b), access aisles ad ja-cent to acces sible spaces s hall be 60 in (1525

    mm ) wide minimu m.

    (b) One in every eight acces sible sp aces , butnot less th an on e, shall be served by an acces saisle 96 in (2440 mm) wide minimum and s hallbe des ignated van access ible as requ ired by4.6.4. The vertical clearance at su ch s pacessh all com ply with 4.6.5. All su ch s paces maybe grouped on one level of a parking stru cture.

    EXCEPTION: Provision of all required parkingspaces in con forman ce with Universal Park -ing Design (se e ap pen dix A4.6.3) is permitted.

    (c) If pas se nger loadin g zone s a re pro vided,

    then at least on e passen ger loading zone s hallcom ply with 4.6.6.

    (d) At facilities providing medical care andother services for pers ons with mobilityimpairments , parking spaces complying with4.6 shall be provided in accordance with

    4.1.2(5)(a) except as follows:

    (i) Outpat ient u nits an d facilities : 10percent of the total num ber of parking spacesprovided serving each su ch ou tpatient un it or


    (ii) Units an d facilities th at s pecialize intreatmen t or services for persons with m obil-ity impairmen ts: 20 percent of the total num -ber of parking spaces provided serving eachsuch unit or facility.

    (e)* Valet par k ing: Valet par k ing facilitiessh all provide a pass enger loading zon e com-plying with 4.6.6 located on an acces siblerou te to th e en tran ce of th e facility. Para-graph s 5(a), 5(b), an d 5(d) of this s ection don ot app ly to valet park ing facilities.

    (6) If toilet facilities are p rovided on a s ite,then each su ch public or common u se toiletfacility shall comply with 4.22. If bathingfacilities are pro vided on a s ite, then e achsu ch pu blic or common us e bathing facilitys ha ll com ply with 4.23.

    For single us er portable toilet or bath ing un itsclustered at a s ingle location, at least 5% butno less than one toilet un it or bathing unitcom plying with 4.22 or 4.23 sh all be ins talledat each cluster whenever typical inacces sibleun its are provided.

    Access ible u nits sh all be identified by theInt ern ationa l Symbol o f Acces sibility.

    EXCEPTION: Portable toilet u nits at con str uc -tion s ites us ed exclus ively by cons tructionperson nel are not requ ired to comply with4.1.2(6).

    (7) Building Signa ge. Signs which des igna tepermanent rooms and spaces s hall complywith 4.30.1, 4.30.4, 4.30.5 an d 4.30.6. Othersigns which provide direction to, or informa-tion abou t, fun ctional spaces of the buildings ha ll com ply with 4.30.1, 4.30.2, 4.30.3, and4.30.5. Elements an d spaces of access ible

    facilities wh ich s ha ll be iden tified by theInt ern ationa l Symb ol of Acces sibility andwhich shall comply with 4.30.7 are:

    (a) Parking s paces designated as reservedfor individuals with disabilities ;


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    (b) Access ible pas sen ger loading zon es;

    (c) Access ible en trances when not all areaccess ible (inaccess ible entran ces s hall havedirectional s ignage to indicate the route to the

    nearest accessible entrance);

    (d) Acces sible to ilet a n d ba th ing facilitieswhen not all are accessible.

    4.1.3 Accessible Buildings: NewConstruction. Access ible bu ildings an dfacilities s ha ll mee t th e following minimu mrequirements:

    (1) At least one accessible route complyingwith 4.3 sh all conn ect access ible building orfacility entrances with all accessible spacesan d elemen ts within th e bu ilding or facility.

    (2) All objects th at overhan g or protru de intocirculation paths sh all comply with 4.4.

    (3) Groun d an d floor s urfaces along acces -sible routes and in access ible rooms andspaces sh all comply with 4.5.

    (4) Interior and exterior stairs connectinglevels th at are n ot con nected by an elevator,ramp, or oth er access ible mean s of verticalaccess sh all comply with 4.9.

    (5)* One pa ss en ger elevator com plying with4.10 shall serve each level, including mezza-

    n ines , in a ll mu lti-st ory buildings an d facilitiesun less exempted below. If more th an on eelevator is pro vided, each full pas se ngerelevator s ha ll com ply with 4.10.

    EXCEPTION 1: Elevators are no t req u ired infacilities th at are less th an th ree stories or th athave less than 3000 squ are feet per storyun less th e building is a sh opping center, ash opping m all, or the profess ional office of ah ealth c are pro vider, or an oth er type of facilityas determ ined by the Attorney General. Theelevator exemption s et forth in th is paragraphdoes no t obviate or limit in an y way the o bliga-tion to com ply with th e oth er access ibility

    requiremen ts establish ed in section 4.1.3. Forexample, floors ab ove or below the acce ss iblegroun d floor mus t meet the requirements ofth is s ection except for elevator se rvice. If toiletor bat hin g facilities ar e provided on a level notse rved by an elevator, th en t oilet or bath ingfacilities mu st be provided on the access ible

    groun d floor. In n ew cons tru ction if a bu ildingor facility is eligible for this exempt ion bu t afull passen ger elevator is non etheless planned,that elevator sh all meet th e requiremen ts of4.10 and sh all serve each level in the building.

    A full pass en ger elevator th at provides se rvicefrom a garage to on ly one level of a building orfacility is n ot requ ired to s erve oth er levels.

    EXCEPTION 2: Elevator pits, elevator pent-hou ses , mech anical rooms , piping or equip-men t catwalks are exempted from th is require-ment .

    EXCEPTION 3: Acces sible ram ps com plyingwith 4.8 ma y be us ed in lieu of an elevator.

    EXCEPTION 4: Platform lifts (wheelch air lifts )com plying with 4.11 of this guideline andapplicable state or local codes m ay be us ed in

    lieu of an elevator on ly un der th e followingconditions:

    (a) To provide an acces sible rou te to aperforming area in an ass embly occupancy.(b) To co mp ly with th e wh eelcha ir viewingposition line-of-sight and dispersion require-ments of 4.33.3.

    (c) To provide acc es s to inciden tal occu pi-able spaces an d rooms which are not open tothe general public and which h ouse no m orethan five pers ons , including bu t not limited toequipmen t control rooms and projection


    (d) To provide acces s where exist ing s iteconstraints or other cons traints make u se of aram p or an e levator infeasible.

    (6) Windows: (Reserved).

    (7) Doors :

    (a) At each access ible en trance to a buildingor facility, at least on e door sh all comply with4.13.

    (b) Within a building or facility, at least one

    door at each acces sible space sh all complywith 4.13.

    (c) Each door th at is an element of anaccess ible rou te s hall comply with 4.13.


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    (d) Each door req uired by 4.3.10, Egress,sh all com ply with 4.13.

    (8) In n ew constru ction, at a minimum , therequ iremen ts in (a) an d (b) below sh all be

    satisfied independen tly:

    (a)(i) At leas t 50 % of all public en trances(excluding tho se in (b) below) mu st be a cces -sible. At least on e mu st be a groun d floorentrance. Public entrances are any entrancesthat are n ot loading or service entran ces.

    (ii) Accessible entrances must be providedin a num ber at least equ ivalent to the nu mberof exits requ ired by th e app licable bu ilding/firecodes. (This paragraph does not requ ire anincrease in the total num ber of entran cesplan ned for a facility.)

    (iii) An accessible entrance must be pro-vided to e ach ten an cy in a facility (for exam ple,individual stores in a s trip shopping cen ter).

    One entrance m ay be considered as m eetingmore th an on e of the requ irements in (a).Where feasible, access ible entran ces sh all bethe en trances us ed by the majority of peoplevisiting or workin g in th e bu ilding.

    (b)(i) In a ddition , if direc t acc es s is pr ovidedfor pedestrians from an enclosed park inggarage to th e bu ilding, at least one directentran ce from th e garage to the bu ilding must

    be access ible.

    (ii) If access is p rovided for p edes triansfrom a pedestrian tunnel or elevated walkway,one en trance to the bu ilding from each tunn elor walkway mus t be acces sible.

    One entrance m ay be considered as m eetingmore th an on e of the requ irements in (b).

    Because entrances also s erve as emergencyexits whos e proximity to all parts of bu ildingsan d facilities is es se nt ial, it is preferable thatall entran ces be acces sible.

    (c) If th e on ly en tran ce to a bu ilding, orten an cy in a facility, is a s ervice en tran ce, tha tentran ce sh all be access ible.

    (d) Entran ces which are n ot access ible sh allha ve direction al signage com plying with 4.30.1,

    4.30.2, 4.30.3, and 4.30.5, which indicates th elocation of the n earest acces sible entran ce.

    (9)* In bu ildings or facilities , or por tions ofbuildings or facilities, required to be acces-

    sible, access ible mean s of egress sh all beprovided in th e sam e nu mber as required forexits b y local bu ilding/life s afety regulations .Whe re a requ ired exit from an occu piable levelabove or below a level of access ible exit dis-charge is not acces sible, an area of rescu eass istance s hall be provided on each s uch level(in a nu mber equ al to that of inaccess iblerequired exits). Areas of rescu e as sistan ces ha ll com ply with 4.3.11. A ho rizonta l exit,me eting th e requ iremen ts of local building/lifesafety regulations, s hall satisfy the require-men t for an area of rescu e ass istance.

    EXCEPTION: Areas of res cu e as s istan ce are

    n ot requ ired in buildings or facilities h aving asupervised automatic sprinkler system.

    (10)* Drinking Fountains:

    (a) Whe re on ly on e drink ing fou nt ain isprovided on a floor there sh all be a drink ingfoun tain which is access ible to individuals whous e wheelchairs in accordance with 4.15 an done access ible to th ose who h ave difficultybending or s tooping. (This can be accomm o-dated b y the u se o f a hi-lo fou nt ain; byproviding one foun tain access ible to thos e whous e wheelchairs and on e foun tain at a stan dard

    h eigh t con ven ient for thos e who h ave difficultyben ding; by providing a fou nt ain acce ss ibleunder 4.15 and a water cooler; or by su ch oth ermean s as would achieve the required access i-bility for each group on each floor.)

    (b) Where m ore th an on e drinking foun tainor water cooler is provided o n a floor, 50% ofthose provided shall comply with 4.15 an dsh all be on an accessible route.

    (11) Toilet Facilities : If toilet rooms areprovided, then each public and common us etoilet room s h all com ply with 4.22. Other toiletrooms provided for the u se of occupants of

    s pecific sp aces (i.e., a private to ilet roo m forth e occu pan t of a private office) sh all be adap t-able. If bath ing room s are p rovided, th en ea chpublic and common u se bathroom sh allcom ply with 4.23. Access ible toilet rooms andbathing facilities s hall be on an access ibleroute.


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    Nu mb er o f e ac h t yp e Nu mb er o f t ele ph on es

    of telephone provided required to comply with

    on each floor 4 . 3 1 . 2 through 4 . 31 . 8 1

    1 or m or e s in gle u nit 1 pe r flo or

    1 bank2 1 per floor

    2 or more banks 2 1 per bank . Acces sibleunit m ay be ins talled as asingle un it in proximity(eithe r visible or withsignage) to the ban k.At least one public tele-phon e per floor shall meetthe requirements for a

    forward reach telephon e3.

    1 Additional pu blic telephon es may be installedat an y height. Unless otherwise s pecified,

    access ible telephon es m ay be either forward orside reach telephones .

    2 A bank cons ists of two or more adjacentpublic telephon es, often ins talled as a un it.

    3 EXCEPTION: For exterior installations only, ifdial tone first s ervice is a vailable, the n a s idereach telephon e may be ins talled instead of therequired forward reach telephone (i.e., onetelephone in proximity to each bank sh allcom ply with 4.31).

    (b)* All telepho n es re qu ired to be acces siblean d com plying with 4.31.2 th rough 4.31.8 shall

    be equ ipped with a volum e con trol. In addition,25 percent, bu t never less than one, of all otherpublic telephon es provided s hall be equippedwith a volume con trol and sh all be dispersedamon g all types of public telephon es, includingclosed circuit telephones, throughout thebuilding or facility. Signage complying withapplicable provisions of4.30.7 sh all be pro-vided.

    (c) The following shall be provided in accor-dance with 4.31.9:

    (i) if a tot al nu mb er of fou r or mor e pu blicpay telephon es (including both interior andexterior ph ones ) is provided at a s ite, and atleast one is in an interior location, then at leastone interior public text telephon e s hall beprovided.

    (ii) if an in terior pu blic pa y telepho ne isprovided in a s tadium or arena, in a conventioncenter, in a h otel with a con vention center, or

    (12) Storage, Sh elving an d Display Units :

    (a) If fixed or bu ilt-in s tor age facilities s u chas cabinets , shelves, closets, and drawers areprovided in acces sible spaces, at least on e of

    each type provided shall contain s torage spacecom plying with 4.25. Additional stor age may beprovided outside of the dimen sions required by4.25.

    (b) Sh elves or disp lay un its allowingself-service by cus tomers in m ercantile occu-pancies s hall be located on an access ible routecom plying with 4.3. Requirements for acces-sible reach ran ge do not apply.

    (13) Controls and ope rating mechan isms inaccess ible spaces , along access ible routes , oras parts of accessible elemen ts (for example,light switches and dispen ser con trols) sh all

    com ply with 4.27.

    (14) If eme rgency warn ing sys tem s a reprovided, then they s hall include both audiblealarms and visual alarms complying with 4.28.Sleeping accomm odations requ ired to complywith 9.3 sh all have an alarm system com plyingwith 4.28. Emergency warning systems inme dical care facilities m ay be mo dified to su itstan dard health care alarm design practice.

    (15) Detecta ble warnings sh all be provided atlocations as specified in 4.29.

    (16) Building Signa ge:

    (a) Signs which designate perman ent room sand s paces s hall comply with 4.30.1, 4.30.4,4.30.5 and 4.30.6.

    (b) Other s igns which p rovide direction to orinformation abou t fun ctional spaces o f thebu ilding sh all com ply with 4.30.1, 4.30.2,4.30.3, and 4.30.5.

    EXCEPTION: Building director ies, m enu s, a ndall other s igns which are temporary are notrequired to comply.

    (17) Public telephones:

    (a) If pu blic pay telephon es , pu blic clos edcircuit telephon es, or other pu blic telephonesare provided, th en th ey sh all com ply with4.31.2 th rough 4.31.8 to the extent requ ired bythe following table:

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    in a covered mall, at least on e interior pu blictext telepho ne sh all be provided in th e facility.

    (iii) if a pu blic pay telephon e is located in oradjacent to a hos pital emergency room, hos pi-

    tal recovery room, or h os pital waiting room,one public text telephon e s hall be provided ateach su ch location.

    (d) Where a bank of telephones in theinterior of a bu ilding consists of three or morepublic pay telephones , at least on e public paytelephone in each s uch bank sh all be equippedwith a s helf and outlet in com pliance with4.31.9(2).

    (18) If fixed or bu ilt-in s eat ing or t ables(including, but no t limited to, stu dy carrels andstu dent laboratory stations ), are provided inaccess ible public or common u se areas , at

    least five percen t (5%), but n ot less th an o ne , ofthe fixed or bu ilt-in s eating areas or tables s hallcom ply with 4.32. An acces sible route s halllead to and throu gh s uch fixed or bu ilt-inseating areas, or tables.

    (19)* Ass em bly areas:

    (a) In places of ass em bly with fixed s eatingaccess ible wheelchair locations sh all complywith 4.33.2, 4.33.3, an d 4.33.4 and s hall beprovided con sis ten t with th e following table:

    Capaci ty o f Se at ing Number of Re quire d

    i n Asse mbly Are as Whee lc hair Locati ons

    4 to 25 1

    26 to 50 2

    51 to 300 4

    301 to 500 6over 500 6, plu s 1 additional space

    for each to tal seating

    capacity increas e of 100

    In addition, one percen t, but not less th an on e,of all fixed s eats sh all be aisle se ats with n oarmres ts on the aisle side, or removable orfolding armres ts on the aisle side. Each s uchseat shall be identified by a sign or marker.

    Signage n otifying p atron s of the availability ofsu ch s eats s hall be posted at the ticket office.Aisle seats are n ot requ ired to comply with4.33.4.

    (b) This paragraph applies to ass embly areaswhere au dible comm un ications are integral tothe u se of the s pace (e.g., concert an d lecturehalls, playhous es an d movietheaters , meetingroom s, etc.). Such as se mb ly areas , if (1) th ey

    accomm odate at least 50 person s, or if theyh ave aud io-am plification s ystem s , and (2) the yhave fixed seating, shall have a permanentlyinstalled ass istive listening s ystem complyingwith 4.33. For other ass embly areas, a perma-nen tly installed ass istive listen ing system, oran adeq uate n um ber of electrical outlets orother s upplemen tary wiring neces sary tosu pport a portable assistive listen ing systemsh all be provided. The minimu mnumber of receivers to be provided shall beequal to 4 percent of the total nu mber of seats ,but in n o case less than two. Signage comply-ing with a pplicable provisions of4.30 sh all beins talled to n otify patron s of the availability of a

    listening system.

    (20) Whe re au tom ated te ller m ach ines (ATMs)are pr ovided, each ATM sh all comply with th erequirements of4.34 except where two or moreare provided at a location, then only one mu stcomply.

    EXCEPTION: Drive-up-on ly aut om ated te llermach ines are n ot required to comply with4.27.2, 4.27.3 an d 4.34.3.

    (21) Whe re dres sin g and fitting room s areprovided for use by the general public, patients,

    cus tomers or employees, 5 percent, but neverless th an on e, of dress ing rooms for each typeof us e in each cluster of dress ing rooms sh allbe acces sible and s hall comply with 4.35.

    Examples of types of dress ing rooms are th oseserving different genders or distinct anddifferent fun ctions as in different treatmen t orexamin ation facilities .

    4 . 1 . 4 (Reserved).

    4 .1 .5 Accessible Buildings: Additions.Each addition to an existing building or facilitysh all be regarded as an alteration. Each s pace

    or elemen t added to th e existing bu ilding orfacility sh all comply with th e app licable pro vi-s ions of 4.1.1 to 4.1.3, Minimum Requiremen ts(for New Cons tru ction) and th e applicabletechn ical specifications of 4.2 throu gh 4.35 andsections 5 throu gh 10. Each addition that

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    affects or cou ld affect th e u sa bility of an areacontaining a primary fun ction sh all complywith 4.1.6(2).

    4 .1 .6 Access ible Buildings: Alterations.

    (1) Gen eral. Alterations to existin g bu ildingsan d facilities s ha ll comply with th e following:

    (a) No alteration shall be undertaken whichdecreases or has the effect of decreasingacces sibility or u sa bility of a bu ilding or facilitybelow the requ irements for new cons truction atthe time of alteration.

    (b) If existing elemen ts, s paces , or comm onareas are altered, then each su ch alteredelement, s pace, feature, or area s hall complywith the applicable provisions of4.1.1 to 4.1.3

    Minimum Requirements (for New Cons truc-tion). If th e app licable provision for n ew con -struction requires that an element, space, orcommon area be on an access ible route, thealtered element, space, or common area is n otrequired to be on an access ible route except asprovided in 4.1.6(2) (Alterations to an AreaContaining a Primary Function.)

    (c) If alterations of single elemen ts , whencons idered together, amou nt to an alteration ofa room or s pace in a bu ilding or facility, theentire space sh all be made acces sible.

    (d) No alteration of an existing elem en t,

    sp ace, or are a of a building or facility sh allimpose a requ irement for greater access ibilitythan that which would be required for newcons truction. For example, if the elevators andstairs in a bu ilding are being altered an d theelevators are, in tu rn, being made acces sible,then no access ibility modifications are requ iredto the s tairs conn ecting levels conn ected by theelevator. If st air mod ifications to corr ect u ns afeconditions are required by other codes , themodifications sh all be don e in com pliance withthes e guidelines u nless techn ically infeasible.

    (e) At least o ne interior pu blic text teleph on ecom plying with 4.31.9 sh all be provided if:

    (i) alterations to existing bu ildings orfacilities with less th an four exterior or inter iorpublic pay telephones would increas e the totalnu mber to four or more telephon es with atleast on e in an interior location; or

    (ii) alterations to on e or m ore exterior orinterior public pay telephon es occu r in anexisting bu ilding or facility with four o r m orepublic telephon es with at least on e in aninterior location.

    (f) If an es calator or s tair is plan ne d orinstalled where non e existed previously andmajor structu ral modifications are necess aryfor su ch ins tallation, then a mean s of acces-sible vertical access shall be provided thatcomplies with th e applicable provisions of4.7,4.8,4.10, or 4.11.

    (g) In alterations , the requiremen ts of4.1.3(9),4.3.10 and 4.3.11 do n ot apply.

    (h)* En tran ces : If a plann ed alteration en tailsalterations to an entran ce, and the building hasan accessible entrance, the entrance being

    altered is not required to com ply with 4.1.3(8),except to the extent requ ired by 4.1.6(2). If aparticular entran ce is n ot made access ible,appropriate access ible s ignage indicating thelocation of the neares t access ible entran ce(s)sh all be installed at or near the inaccess ibleentran ce, such that a pers on with disabilitieswill not be requ ired to retrace the approachroute from the inacces sible entran ce.

    (i) If the a lteration work is limited s olely tothe electrical, mech anical, or plum bing system,or to hazardous m aterial abatemen t, or auto-matic sprink ler retrofitting, and does not

    involve th e alteration of any elemen ts or s pacesrequired to be accessible un der thes e guide-lines , then 4.1.6(2) does not apply.

    (j) EXCEPTION: In alter ation work , if comp li-an ce with 4 .1.6 is tec hn ically infeasible, thealteration shall provide accessibility to themaximum extent feasible. Any elemen ts orfeatu res of th e bu ilding or facility that a re beingaltered and can be m ade access ible sh all bemade access ible within th e s cope of the alter-ation.

    Tech n ically Infeas ible. Mean s, with re sp ect toan alteration of a building or a facility, tha t it

    has little likelihood of being accomplishedbecaus e existing stru ctural conditions wouldrequ ire removing or altering a load-bearin gmem ber which is an es sen tial part of thestru ctural frame; or because oth er existingphysical or site cons traints proh ibitmodification or addition of elemen ts, s paces, or

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    features which are in full and strict compliancewith th e minimum requ irements for newconstruction and which are n ecessary toprovide acces sibility.

    (k) EXCEPTION:

    (i) These guidelines do n ot requ ire theins tallation of an elevator in an altered facilitythat is less than th ree stories or has less than3,000 square feet per story unless the bu ildingis a sh opping center, a sh opping mall, theprofess ional office of a hea lth ca re pro vider, oran oth er type of facility as deter min ed by theAttorney General.

    (ii) Th e exem ption provided in pa ragraph (i)does no t obviate or limit in an y way the ob liga-tion to com ply with the other access ibilityrequirements established in these guidelines.

    For example, alterations to floors above orbelow the groun d floor mus t be access ibleregardless of whether the altered facility has anelevator. If a facility subject to the elevatorexemption set forth in paragraph (i) non ethe-less has a full passenger elevator, that elevatorsh all meet, to the maximum extent feasible, theaccess ibility requirements of thes e guidelines.

    (2) Alterations to an Area Con taining aPrimary Fun ction: In addition to th e requ ire-ments of 4.1.6(1), an alteration that affects orcould affect th e u sability of or acces s to an areacontaining a primary fun ction sh all be made s o

    as to en su re that, to the m aximum extentfeas ible, th e path of travel to th e altered areaand the restrooms, telephones, and drinkingfoun tains serving th e altered area, are readilyaccess ible to and us able by individuals withdisabilities, un less s uch alterations are dispro-portionate to th e overall alterations in terms ofcost an d scope (as determ ined un der criteriaestablished by the Attorney General).

    (3) Special Technical Provisions for Alter-ations to Existing Buildings and Facilities:

    (a) Ramps: Curb ram ps and interior orexterior ramps to be con stru cted on sites or in

    existing buildings or facilities wher e sp acelimitations prohibit the u se of a 1:12 s lope orless m ay have slopes an d rises as follows:

    (i) A slope between 1:10 an d 1:12 is allowedfor a maximum rise of 6 inches .

    (ii) A slope between 1:8 and 1:10 is a llowedfor a m aximu m rise of 3 inch es. A slope steeperthan 1:8 is n ot allowed.

    (b) Stairs : Full exten sion of ha nd rails at

    stairs s hall not be required in alterations wheresu ch extens ions would be hazardous orimposs ible due to plan con figuration.

    (c) Elevato rs :

    (i) If s afety doo r edges are p rovided inexisting au tomatic elevators, au tomatic doorreope nin g devices m ay be omitted (see 4.10.6).

    (ii) Whe re existin g sh aft co nfigur ation ortechnical infeasibility prohibits strict compli-ance with 4.10.9, the minimum car plan dimen-sions m ay be reduced by the minimum amou ntneces sary, but in n o case sh all the ins ide car

    area be sm aller than 48 in by 48 in.

    (iii) Equivalent facilitation may be providedwith an elevator car of differen t dimen sion swhen u sability can be demon strated and whenall other elemen ts requ ired to be access iblecomply with the applicable provisions of4.10.For example, an elevator o f 47 in b y 69 in (1195mm by 1755 mm) with a door opening on th enarrow dimension, could accommodate thestan dard wheelchair clearances sh own inFigure 4 .

    (d) Door s :

    (i) Where it is technically infeasible tocomply with clear opening width requiremen tsof4.13.5, a projection of 5/8 in m aximu m willbe permitted for the latch s ide stop.

    (ii) If existing th res ho lds ar e 3/4 in h igh orless , and h ave (or are mo dified to h ave) abeveled edge on each s ide, they may rem ain.

    (e) Toilet Room s :

    (i) Where it is technically infeasible tocom ply with 4.22 or 4.23, the installation of atleast on e u nisex toilet/bathroom per floor,

    located in th e s ame area as existing toiletfacilities, will be permitted in lieu of modifyingexisting toilet facilities to be acc es sible. Eachun isex toilet room sh all contain on e watercloset com plying with 4.16 and one lavatorycom plying with 4.19, and th e door sh all have aprivacy latch .

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    (ii) Where it is technically infeasible toinstall a required stan dard stall (Fig. 30 (a)), orwhere other codes prohibit reduction of thefixtu re co un t (i.e., removal of a water closet inorder to create a double-wide stall), either

    alternate stall (Fig.30(b)) may be provided in lieuof the s tandard s tall.

    (iii) When existing toilet or bathing facilitiesare being altered and are n ot made acces sible,signage co mp lying with 4.30.1, 4.30.2, 4.30.3,4.30.5, and 4.30.7 sh all be provided indicatin gthe location of the neares t access ible toilet orbathing facility within the facility.

    (f) As s em bly Areas :

    (i) Where it is technically infeasible todisperse accessible seating throughout analtered asse mbly area, accessible s eating areas

    may be clustered. Each acces sible seating areash all have provisions for com panion s eatingand s hall be located on an access ible route thatalso serves as a mean s of emergency egress .

    (ii) Whe re it is tech nically infeas ible t o alterall performing areas to be on an ac cess ibleroute, at least on e of each type of performingarea sh all be made acces sible.

    (g) Platform Lifts (Wheelchair Lifts): Inalterations , platform lifts (wheelch air lifts )com plying with 4.11 and applicable state orlocal codes m ay be used as part of an acces -

    sible route. The u se of lifts is n ot limited to th efour conditions in exception 4 of 4.1.3(5)

    (h) Dressing Rooms: In alterations wheretechn ical infeasibility can be dem ons trated, onedress ing room for each s ex on each level shallbe made acces sible. Where on ly un isex dress-ing rooms are provided, access ible u nisexdress ing rooms may be u sed to fulfill thisrequirement.

    4.1.7 Accessible Buildings: HistoricPreservation.

    (1) Applicability:

    (a) General Ru le. Alterations to a qu alifiedh istoric bu ilding or facility sh all comply with4.1.6 Acces sible Buildings : Alterations , theapplicable technical specifications of4.2

    throu gh 4.35 an d th e applicable special applica-tion sections 5 throu gh 10 un less it is deter-mined in accordance with the procedures in4.1.7(2) that compliance with the requiremen tsfor accessible routes (exterior and interior),

    ramps , entrances , or toilets would threaten ordestroy th e h istoric significance of the buildingor facility in wh ich cas e th e alterna tive requ ire-men ts in 4.1.7(3) may be u sed for th e feature.

    EXCEPTION: (Rese rved).

    (b) Definition. A qualified historic building orfacility is a building or facility that is:

    (i) Listed in o r eligible for list ing in t heNational Register of Historic P laces; or

    (ii) Designated as historic u nder an appro-priate Sta te or local law.

    (2) Procedures:

    (a) Alterations to Qualified Historic Buildingsand Facilities Su bject to Section 106 of theNational Historic Pre se rvation Act:

    (i) Section 1 06 Proce ss . Section 106 o f th eNational Historic Preservation Act (16 U.S.C.470 f) requ ires th at a Federal agenc y withjur isdiction o ver a Federa l, federally ass isted, orfederally licensed un dertaking con sider theeffects of th e agencys u nd ertak ing on bu ildingsand facilities listed in or eligible for listing in

    th e Nation al Register o f Histo ric Places a nd giveth e Advisory Coun cil on Histo ric Prese rvation areasonable opportunity to commen t on theun dertaking prior to approval of the u ndertak -ing.

    (ii) ADA Application . Where altera tion s a reun dertaken to a qu alified historic building orfacility that is s ubject to s ection 106 of theNational Historic Pres ervation Act, the Federalagency with jurisdiction over th e un dertakingshall follow the section 106 process. If the StateHist oric P res ervation Officer or AdvisoryCouncil on Historic Preservation agrees th atcompliance with th e requiremen ts for acces-

    sible routes (exterior an d interior), ramps ,entran ces, or toilets would threaten or des troythe historic significance of the building orfacility, the alterna tive requ iremen ts in 4.1.7(3)may be u sed for the feature.


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    (b) Alterations to Qualified Historic Build-ings and Facilities Not Subject to Section 106of the Nation al Hist oric Pres ervation Act.Where a lterations are u ndertaken to a qu alifiedhistoric building or facility that is not subject

    to section 106 of the National Historic Preser-vation Act, if the e nt ity un dertak ing the alter-ations believes that com pliance with therequiremen ts for access ible rou tes (exteriorand interior), ramps , entran ces, or toiletswould threaten or destroy th e historic s ignifi-can ce of th e bu ilding or facility and th at th ealternative requ irements in 4.1.7(3) shou ld beus ed for the feature, the entity shou ld cons ultwith th e Sta te Histo ric Pres ervation Officer. Ifth e State Histo ric Pres ervation Officer agreesthat compliance with the access ibility require-men ts for accessible routes (exterior andinterior), ramps , entran ces or toilets wouldthreaten or des troy the h istorical significance

    of the bu ilding or facility, the a lternat ive re -quiremen ts in 4.1.7(3) may be u sed.

    (c) Cons ultation With Interested Person s.Interes ted person s s hou ld be invited to partici-pate in th e cons ultation process, includingState or local acces sibility officials, individualswith disabilities, an d organizations represen t-ing individuals with disabilities .

    (d) Certified Local Government HistoricPreservation Programs. Where the State His-toric Pres ervation Officer has delegated th econs ultation respon sibility for purpos es of this

    section to a local governm ent h istoric preserva-tion program th at has been certified in accor-dan ce with s ection 10 1(c) of th e NationalHistoric Preservation Act of 1966 (16 U.S.C.470a (c)) an d implem en ting regulation s (36 CFR61.5), the responsibility may be carried out bythe appropriate local governm ent body orofficial.

    (3) Historic Pr es ervation: Minimu m Require-ments:

    (a) At least one accessible route complyingwith 4.3 from a site access point to an acces-sible entran ce s hall be provided.

    EXCEPTION: A ram p with a s lope n o greate rthan 1:6 for a ru n not to exceed 2 ft (610 m m)may be us ed as part of an acces sible route toan entrance.

    (b) At least one access ible en trance comply-ing with 4.14 which is us ed by the pu blic sh allbe pr ovided.

    EXCEPTION: If it is determ ined tha t n o en -

    trance u sed by the public can comply with4.14, then access at any entrance not us ed bythe general public bu t open (un locked) withdirectional s ignage at th e primary entran cemay be used. The acces sible entran ce sh allalso h ave a n otification system . Where secu rityis a problem, remote mon itoring may be us ed.

    (c) If toilets are provided, th en at leas t on etoilet facility complying with 4.22 an d 4.1.6sh all be provided along an acces sible route thatcomplies with 4.3. Su ch toilet facility may beun isex in design.

    (d) Access ible rou tes from an access ible

    entran ce to all publicly used s paces on at leastthe level of the access ible en trance s hall beprovided. Access sh all be provided to a ll levelsof a bu ilding or facility in c om plian ce with 4.1whenever practical.

    (e) Disp lays and written inform ation, docu -men ts, etc., sh ould be located where th ey canbe seen by a seated pers on. Exhibits an ds igna ge displayed h orizon tally (e.g., openbooks ), shou ld be no higher than 44 in (1120mm ) above the floor s ur face.

    NOTE: The te ch nical provision s of section s 4.2

    through 4.35 are the same as those of theAmer ican Nationa l Stan dard In stitu tes docu -men t A117.1-1980, except as n oted in th e text.

    4 .2 Space Allowance and ReachRanges .

    4 .2 .1 * Wheelchair Pass age Width. Th eminimu m clear width for s ingle wheelchairpass age shall be 32 in (815 mm) at a point an d36 in (915 mm ) continu ous ly (s ee Fig. 1 an d24(e)).

    4 .2 .2 Width for Wheelchair Pass ing. Th eminimu m width for two wheelchairs to pas s is60 in (1525 mm ) (see Fig. 2).

    4 .2 .3 * Wheelchair Turning S pace. The spacerequired for a wheelchair to mak e a 180 -degreeturn is a clear space of 60 in (1525 mm )


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    diameter (see Fig. 3(a)) or a T-sh aped s pace (seeFig. 3 (b)).

    4 .2 .4 * Clear Floor or Ground S pace

    for Wheelchairs.

    4 .2.4 .1 Size and Approach. The minimumclear floor or groun d space required to accom-modate a single, stationary wheelchair andoccupan t is 30 in by 48 in (760 mm by 1220m m ) (s ee Fig. 4(a)). The m inimum clear floor orground s pace for wheelchairs may be pos i-tioned for forward or pa rallel appro ach to anobject (s ee Fig. 4(b) an d (c)). Clear floor orground s pace for wheelchairs may be part of thekn ee space required un der some objects.

    4 .2 .4 .2 Relationship of Maneuvering Clear-ance to Wheelchair Spaces . One full

    un obstru cted side of the clear floor or groun dsp ace for a wheelch air sh all adjoin or overlapan acces sible route or adjoin an other wheel-ch air clear floor s pace. If a clear floor sp ace islocated in an alcove or oth erwise confined onall or part of three sides, additional maneuver-ing clearances sh all be provided as sh own inFig. 4(d) and (e).

    4 .2 .4 .3 Surfaces for Wheelchair Spaces .Clear floor or ground spaces for wheelchairssh all com ply with 4.5.

    4 .2 .5 * Forward Reach. If the clear floor s paceonly allows forward approach to an object, the

    maximum high forward reach allowed s hall be48 in (1220 mm ) (see Fig. 5(a)).The min im umlow forwa rd reach is 15 in (380 m m ). If th e h ighforward reach is over an obs truction, reach andclearances s hall be as sh own in Fig. 5(b).

    4 .2 .6 * Side Reach. If the clear floor s paceallows parallel approach by a person in awheelchair, the maximum high side reachallowed sh all be 54 in (1370 m m) and th e lowside reach s hall be no less th an 9 in (230 mm)above the floor (Fig. 6(a) and (b)). If the sidereach is over an obstru ction, the reach an dclearances s hall be as sh own in Fig 6(c).

    4 .3 Access ib le Route .

    4 .3 .1 * General. All walks , halls, corridors ,aisles, sky walks , tunnels , and other s paces


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    that are part of an acces sible route sh allcom ply with 4.3.

    4 . 3 . 2 Lo c at i on .

    (1) At least on e acces sible route within th ebou nd ary of th e site s ha ll be provided frompublic trans portation stops , accessible parking,and acces sible pass enger loading zones , andpublic streets or s idewalks to th e access iblebuilding en trance th ey serve. The access ibleroute s hall, to the m aximu m extent feasible,coincide with the route for th e general pub lic.

    (2) At least on e acces sible route s hall connectaccessible buildings, facilities, elements, andspaces that are on the s ame site.

    (3) At least on e acces sible route s hall connec tacces sible bu ilding or facility entran ces with allaccess ible spaces an d elemen ts and with allaccess ible dwelling un its within th e bu ilding orfacility.

    (4) An access ible rou te sh all conn ect at leastone acces sible entran ce of each acces sible

    dwelling u nit with th ose exterior an d interiorspaces and facilities that s erve the access ibledwelling un it.

    4 .3 .3 Width. The m inimum clear width of an

    accessible route sh all be 36 in (915 m m) exceptat doors (se e 4.13.5 an d 4.13.6). If a pers on in awheelchair must make a tu rn aroun d anobstru ction, the minimu m clear width of theaccess ible route sh all be as s hown in Fig. 7(a)an d (b).

    4 .3.4 Passing Space. If an acces sible routehas less th an 60 in (1525 mm ) clear width,then pass ing spaces at least 60 in by 60 in(1525 m m by 1525 m m) shall be located atreasonable intervals not to exceed 200 ft (61m). A T-inters ection of two corridors or walksis an acceptable passing place.

    4 .3 .5 Head Room. Access ible routes s hallcom ply with 4.4.2.

    4 .3 .6 Surface Textures. The s ur face of anaccess ible rou te s hall comply with 4.5.


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    4 .3.7 Slope. An access ible rou te with arun ning slope greater than 1:20 is a ramp an dsh all com ply with 4.8. Nowhere sh all the cros sslope of an access ible route exceed 1:50.

    4 .3 .8 Changes in Levels. Chan ges in levelsalong an acces sible route s hall comply with4.5.2. If an acces sible route has chan ges inlevel greater th an 1 /2 in (13 m m), th en a c ur b

    ramp, ramp, elevator, or platform lift (as p ermit-ted in 4.1.3 a n d4.1.6)sh all be provided thatcomplies with 4.7,4.8,4.10, or 4.11, respec-tively. An accessible route does not includestairs, s teps, or es calators. See definition ofegress , means of in 3.5.

    4 .3 .9 Doors . Doors along an access ible routesh all com ply with 4.13.

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    4.3.10* Egress. Access ible routes serving an yaccess ible space or elemen t sh all also serve asa mean s of egress for emergencies or conn ect

    to an acces sible area ofrescue a ssis tance.

    4 .3 .11 Areas o f Res cue As s i s t ance .

    4 .3 .11 .1 Loca t i on and Cons t r uc t ion . Anarea of rescue a ss istance s ha ll be one of thefollowing:

    (1) A portion of a s tairwa y lan ding with in asm okeproof enclosu re (complying w ith localrequiremen ts).

    (2) A portion of an exterior exit balcon ylocated imm ediately adjacent to a n exit s tairwa y when the balcony complies w ithlocal requirem ents for exterior exit ba lconies.Openings to th e interior of the bu ilding lo-cated w ithin 20 feet (6 m ) of the area of rescu e

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    as sistan ce sha ll be protected with f ire as sem -blies h aving a t hree-fourths hou r fireprotection rating.

    (3) A portion of a on e-hou r fire-resist ive cor-

    ridor (com plying w ith local requiremen ts forfire-resist ive cons truction a nd for openings )located imm ediately adjacent to a n exit enclosure.

    (4) A vestibule located imm ediately adjacen tto an exit enclosure and constructed to thesa m e fire-resistive sta nda rds as required forcorridors an d openings .

    (5) A portion of a s tairwa y landing w ithin anexit enclosure wh ich is ven ted to the exterioran d is sepa rated from th e interior of the bu ild-ing with n ot less th an one-hour fire-resistivedoors.

    (6) When approved by the a ppropriate localau thority, an area or a room w hich is sepa-rated from other portions of the building by asm oke ba rrier. Sm oke ba rriers sh all have afire-resis-tive ratin g of not less tha n on e hou ran d sh all com pletely en close th e area or room.Doors in t he s m oke ba rrier sh all be tight-fittingsm oke- an d draft-control as sem blies h aving afire-protection rating of not less tha n 20 m in-utes an d sh all be self-closing or autom aticclosing. The a rea or room sh all be providedwith an exit directly to a n exit en closure. Wherethe room or area exits into a n exit enclosure

    wh ich is required to be of m ore tha n on e-hou rfire-resist ive con struct ion, the room or areash all have the sa m e fire-resistive construction,including the sa m e opening protection, asrequired for the a djacent exit enclosu re.

    (7) An eleva tor lobby w hen elevator sh aftsan d adjacent lobbies a re pressu rized a s re-quired for sm okeproof enclosu res by local reg-ulations a nd wh en com plying with require-m ents h erein for size, com m un ication, an dsignage. Su ch pressu rization sys tem s ha ll beactivated by sm oke detectors on ea ch floor lo-cated in a m an ner approved by the appropriatelocal au thority. Press uriza tion equipmen t a nd

    its duct w ork w ithin th e building sha ll be sep-arated from oth er portions of the building by am inim um tw o-hou r fire-resist ive cons truction.

    4 .3 .11 .2 S i z e . Each area of rescue as sistan cesh all provide at least tw o access ible areaseach being not less tha n 30 inches by 48inches (760 mm by 1220 m m ). The area of

    rescue as sis tance sha ll not encroach on a nyrequired exit width. The tota l num ber of su ch30-inch by 48-inch (760 mm by 1220 m m )areas per story s ha ll be not less th an one forevery 200 persons of calculated occupan t load

    served by the area of rescue a ss istance.

    EXCEPTION: Th e ap propriate loca l au th oritym ay reduce the m inim um nu m ber of 30-inchby 48-inch (760 mm by 1220 mm ) areas to onefor each a rea of rescu e as sist an ce on floorswh ere the occupan t load is less tha n 200.

    4 .3 .11 .3 * S t a i r way Wi d t h . Each s ta irwa yadjacent to an a rea of rescue as sistan ce sha llha ve a m inim um clear width of 48 inchesbetween ha ndrails.

    4 .3 .11 .4* Two-way Communicat ion. Am ethod of two-w ay com m un ication, with both

    visible an d au dible signa ls, sha ll be providedbetween each area of rescue as sistan ce andthe prima ry entry. The fire departm ent orappropriate local au thority m ay approve alocation other tha n th e prima ry entry.

    4 .3 .11 .5 Ident i f i ca t ion. Each a rea of rescueas sistan ce sha ll be identified by a sign wh ichstates AREA OF RESCUE AS SISTANCEa n ddisplay s th e international sym bol of access i-bili ty. The s ign sh all be i llum inated w hen exit sign il lum ination is required. Signage s ha llalso be ins talled at all ina ccessible exits an dwh ere otherwise necess ary to clearly indicate

    the direction to areas of rescu e as sista nce. Ineach a rea of rescue as sistan ce, ins tructionson the u se of the area un der em ergencyconditions sh all be posted adjoining th etwo-way communicat ion system.

    4 .4 Protruding Objects .

    4 .4 .1 * General. Objects p rojecting from walls(for examp le, teleph on es ) with th eir leadingedges between 27 in and 80 in (685 mm and2030 m m) above th e finish ed floor sh all pro-trude n o more th an 4 in (100 mm ) into walks ,halls, corridors, pass ageways, or aisles (s ee Fig.8(a)). Objects mou nted with their leading edges

    at or below 27 in (685 mm ) above the finis he dfloor may protrude any amou nt (s ee Fig. 8(a)and (b)). Free-stan ding objects m oun ted onposts or pylons may overhan g 12 in (305 mm)maximum from 27 in to 80 in (685 mm to 2030mm) above the ground or finished floor (s ee Fig.

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    8(c) an d (d)). Protruding objects shall notreduce th e clear width of an acces sible route ormaneuvering space (see Fig. 8(e)).

    4 .4 .2 Head Room. Walks, halls, corridors,pass ageways, aisles, or oth er circulation

    spaces sh all have 80 in (2030 mm) minimumclear head room (see Fig. 8(a)). If verticalclearance of an area adjoining a n a ccessibleroute is reduced to less tha n 80 in (nom inaldim ens ion), a ba rrier to w arn blind orvisua lly-im paired person s s ha ll be provided(see Fig. 8 (c-1)).

    4 .5 Ground and Floor Surfaces .

    4 .5 .1 * General. Ground an d floor surfacesalong accessible routes and in access iblerooms and s paces including floors, walks,ramps , stairs, and curb ramps , sh all be stable,

    firm, slip-res istan t, and s ha ll com ply with 4.5.

    4.5.2 Changes in Level. Changes in level upto 1/4 in (6 mm ) may be vertical an d withou tedge treatment (see Fig. 7(c) ). Changes in levelbetween 1/4 in an d 1/2 in (6 mm and 13 mm )

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    sh all be beveled with a s lope no greater than1:2 (see Fig. 7(d) ). Chan ges in level greaterthan 1/2 in (13 m m) shall be accomplished bymean s of a ramp that complies with 4.7 or 4.8.

    4.5.3* Carpet. If carpet o r carpe t tile is u se don a ground or floor su rface, then it shall besecu rely attached; have a firm cus hion, pad, orbacking, or no cu sh ion or pad; and have a levelloop, texture d loop, level cut pile, or level cu t/un cut pile texture. The m aximu m pile thick-

    ness sh all be 1/2 in (13 m m) (see Fig. 8(f)).Exposed edges of carpet sh all be fastened tofloor su rfaces and have trim along th e entirelength o f th e expose d edge. Carpet ed ge trimsh all com ply with 4.5.2.

    4 .5.4 Gratings. If gratings are located inwalking su rfaces, then they sh all have spacesno greater than 1/2 in (13 m m) wide in onedirection (see Fig. 8(g)). If gratings h ave elon -gated openings, then th ey shall be placed sothat th e long dimens ion is perpendicular to thedominant direction of travel (s ee Fig. 8(h)).

    4 .6 Parking and Pass enger LoadingZones .

    4 .6 .1 Minimum Number. Parking s pacesrequired to be a ccess ible by 4.1 sh all complywith 4.6.2 th rough 4.6.5. Passen ger loadingzones required to be acces sible by 4.1 shal lcom ply with 4.6.5 a nd 4.6.6.

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    4 .6.2 Location. Accessible parking spacesserving a particular building shall be located onthe s hortes t access ible route of travelfromadjacent parking to an acces sible entran ce. Inparking facilities that do n ot serve a particularbuilding, access ible pa rking sh all be locatedon th e sh ortest accessible route of trav el to anaccess ible pedestrian entran ce of the park ingfacility. In bu ildings w ith m ultiple acces sibleentrances with adjacent pa rking, access ibleparking spa ces s ha ll be dispersed a nd locatedclosest to th e access ible entrances.

    4 .6 .3 * Parking Spaces.Accessible parkingspaces sh all be at least 96 in (2440 mm ) wide.Parking access aisles sh all be part of an acces -sible route to the building or facility entranceand sh all comply with 4.3. Two ac ces sibleparking spaces may sh are a common access

    aisle (see Fig. 9). Parked vehicle overhangssh all not redu ce the clear width of an acces-sible route. Parking spaces a nd access aislessh all be level with su rface s lopes n ot exceed-ing 1:50 (2%) in a ll direction s.

    4.6.4* Signage. Access ible park ing spacessh all be designated as reserved by a signsh owing th e s ymbol of accessibility (see4.30.7).Spa ces complying with 4.1.2(5)(b) shal lha ve an a dditional sign Van-Accessiblem oun ted below th e sym bol of accessibility.Such s igns sh all be located so they can notbeobscu red by a vehicle parked in th e space.

    4 .6.5* Vert ical Clearance. Provide m inimu mvertical clearance of 114 in (2895 m m ) ataccess ible pass enger loading zones a nd alongat least on e vehicle access route to su ch areasfrom site en tran ce(s) an d exit(s). At pa rkingspa ces complying with 4.1.2(5)(b), providem inim um vertical clearan ce of 98 in (2490m m ) at the parking space an d along at least one vehicle access route to su ch spa ces fromsite en tran ce(s) an d exit(s).

    4 .6 .6 Pass enger Loading Zones. Passengerloading zones sh all provide an access aisle atleast 60 in (1525 m m ) wide and 2 0 ft (240

    in)(6100 mm ) long adjacent an d parallel to theveh icle pull-up sp ace (see Fig. 10). If there arecurbs between the acces s aisle and the vehiclepull-up s pace, then a curb ramp com plying with4.7 s ha ll be provided. Vehicle s tan ding spa cesan d access aisles sh all be level with s urface

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    slope s n ot exce eding 1:50 (2%) in a ll direction s.

    4 .7 Curb Ramps .

    4 .7.1 Location. Curb ram ps complying with4.7 shall be provided wherever an accessibleroute crosses a curb.

    4 .7.2 Slope. Slopes of curb ram ps s hallcom ply with 4.8.2. The slope shall be measu redas s hown in Fig. 11.Tran sitions from ram ps towa lks, gutters, or streets sha ll be f lus h a ndfree of abrupt chan ges. Maxim um slopes ofadjoining gutters, road surface im m ediatelyadjacent to the cu rb ram p, or accessible routesh all not exceed 1:20.

    4 .7 .3 Width. The minimu m width of a curbram p sh all be 36 in (915 m m), exclus ive offlared sides.

    4.7.4 Surface. Surfaces of curb ram ps s hallcom ply with 4.5.

    4 .7 .5 Sides of Curb Ramps. If a cu rb ram p islocated where pedestrians mu st walk acros sthe ramp, or where it is not protected byha ndrails or gua rdrails, it sh all have flaredsides; the m aximu m slope of the flare shall be1:10 (see Fig. 12(a)). Curb ramps with return ed

    curbs may be us ed where pedestrians wouldnot n ormally walk acros s th e ramp (s ee Fig.12(b)).

    4 .7 .6 Built-up Curb Ramps. Built-up curbramps sh all be located so tha t they do notproject int o vehicular traffic lanes (see Fig. 13).

    4 .7 .7 Detectable Warnings. A curb ram p sh allh ave a detec table warnin g complying with4.29.2.The detectable warning sh all extendth efull width and depth of the cu rb ramp.

    4.7.8 Obstructions. Curb ramps s hall belocated or protected to prevent th eir obstructionby parked vehicles.

    4 .7 .9 Location at Marked Crossings . Curbramps at marked cross ings sh all be wholly

    contained within the m arkings, excluding anyflared s ides (s ee Fig. 15 ).

    4 .7 .1 0 Diagonal Curb Ramps. If diagonal (orcorner type) curb ram ps h ave return ed curbs orother well-defined edges, s uch edges s hall beparallel to the direction o f pedes trian flow. Thebottom of diagonal cu rb ramps sh all have 48 in(1220 mm ) minimum clear space as s hown inFig. 15(c) and (d). If diagonal curb r am ps ar eprovided at marked cross ings, the 48 in (1220mm ) clear space sh all be within th e mark ings(see Fig. 15(c) and (d)). If diagonal cu rb ram pshave flared sides, th ey sh all also h ave at least a

    24 in (610 mm) long s egment of straight curblocated on each side of the cu rb ramp andwithin the m arked crossing (s ee Fig. 15(c)).

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    4 .7 .11 Is lands . Any raised islands in cros s-ings sh all be cut th rough level with the s treet orhave curb ramps at both s ides and a level areaat least 48 in (1220 mm ) long between th e curbramps in the part of the island inters ected bythe cross ings (see Fig. 15(a) and (b)).

    4 . 8 R a mp s .

    4 .8 .1 * General. Any part of an access ible rou tewith a s lope greater than 1:20 sh all be cons id-ered a ramp and s hall comply with 4.8.

    4 .8 .2 * Slope and Rise. The least poss ibleslope sh all be us ed for any ramp. The m aximu mslope of a ramp in n ew constru ction sh all be1:12. The m aximu m rise for any run sh all be 30in (760 mm ) (see Fig. 16). Curb ramps an d

    ramps to be constru cted on existing sites or inexisting bu ildings o r facilities m ay have slopesand rises as allowed in 4.1.6(3)(a)if sp acelimitations prohibit the u se o f a 1:12 slope orless.

    4 . 8 R a m ps


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    4 .8 .3 Clear Width. The minimu m clear widthof a ramp s hall be 36 in (915 m m).

    4.8.4* Landings. Ramps sh all ha ve levellandings at bottom and top of each ram p andeach ramp ru n. Landings s hall have the follow-ing features :

    (1) The land ing sh all be at least as wide as the

    ramp ru n leading to it.

    (2) The landing length sh all be a m inimum of60 in (1525 m m) clear.

    (3) If ram ps c ha nge direction at lan dings, th eminimu m landing size sh all be 60 in by 60 in(1525 m m by 1525 m m).

    (4) If a door way is locat ed at a landing, th en th earea in front o f the doorway sh all com ply with4.13.6.

    4 .8 .5 * Handrails. If a ramp ru n h as a rise

    greater than 6 in (150 mm ) or a h orizontalprojection greater than 72 in (1830 mm), then itsh all have hand rails on both s ides. Handrailsare not required on cu rb ramps or adjacent toseat ing in a ssem bly areas. Handrails s hallcom ply with 4.26 an d sh all ha ve the followingfeatures:

    (1) Han drails s ha ll be pro vided along bothsides of ramp segmen ts. The inside han drail onswitchback or dogleg ramps sh all always becont inuous.

    (2) If han drails are no t continu ous , they sh allextend at least 12 in (305 mm ) beyond the topand bottom of the ramp segment and s hall beparallel with th e floor or ground s urface (see

    Fig. 17).

    (3) The clear space between the h andrail andth e wall sh all be 1 - 1/2 in (38 m m).

    (4) Gripping s urfaces s hall be continu ous .

    (5) Top of han drail gripping s urfaces sh all bem ounted between 34 in and 38 in (865 mm and965 mm ) above ram p surfaces.

    (6) Ends of han drails sh all be either roundedor returned sm oothly to floor, wa ll, or post.

    (7) Handrails sh all not rotate w ithin th eirfittings.

    4 .8 .6 Cross Slope and Surfaces. The crossslope of ramp s urfaces sh all be no greater than1:50. Ramp surfaces shall comply with 4.5.

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    4 .8 .7 Edge Protection. Ramps an d landingswith drop-offs sh all have cu rbs , walls, railings ,or projecting su rfaces that prevent people fromslipping off the ramp. Curbs sh all be a m ini-mu m of 2 in (50 m m) high (see Fig. 17).

    4 .8 .8 Outdoor Conditions. Outdoor rampsand th eir approaches sh all be designed so th atw