Matakuliah Evolusi Jurusan Biologi Fakultas MIPA...

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[email protected] staff.unila.ac.id/priyambodo Matakuliah Evolusi Jurusan Biologi Fakultas MIPA Universitas Lampung
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    03-Sep-2019
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  • [email protected] staff.unila.ac.id/priyambodo

    Matakuliah Evolusi Jurusan Biologi Fakultas MIPA Universitas Lampung

  • [email protected] staff.unila.ac.id/priyambodo

    OVERVIEW

    • Populasi

    • Gene Pool

    • Variasi

    • Frekuensi Alel dan Frekuensi Genotipe

    • Kesetimbangan Genetik

    • Perubahan Frekuensi Alel dan Genotipe

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    POPULASI

    • Populasi adalah kumpulan organisme sejenis yang hidup dalam tempat dan waktu yang sama serta dapat melakukan perkawinan yang menghasilkan filial yang fertil.

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    GENE POOL

    • Gene pool jumlah total gen pada seluruh individu dalah sebuah populasi.

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    VARIASI

    • Variasi merupakan keanekaragaman yang ada dalam populasi

    • Variasi gen merupakan sumber variasi fenotipe yang dipengaruhi oleh variasi lingkungan

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    FREKUENSI ALEL DAN GENOTIPE

    • Frekuensi alel menyatakan perbandingan alel suatu gen dalam populasi

    • Frekuensi genotipe menyatakan perbandingan macam genotipe yang dapat muncul dari suatu sifat dalam populasi

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    FREKUENSI ALEL DAN GENOTIPE

    • For an autosomal locus with two alleles, the Hardy-Weinberg law can be stated as follows: • Assumptions—If a population is large, randomly mating,

    and not affected by mutation, migration, or natural selection, then:

    • Prediction 1 —The allelic frequencies of a population do not change;

    • Prediction 2 —The genotypic frequencies stabilize (will not change) after one generation in the proportions p2 (the frequency of AA), 2pq (the frequency of Aa), and q2 (the frequency of aa), where p equals the frequency of allele A and q equals the frequency of allele a.

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    FREKUENSI ALEL DAN GENOTIPE

    • When genotypes are in the expected proportions of p2, 2pq, and q2, the population is said to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

    p the frequency of the dominant (A) allele q the frequency of the recessive (a) allele

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    FREKUENSI ALEL DAN GENOTIPE

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    FREKUENSI ALEL DAN GENOTIPE

    • Calculated: 1. Prediction of allele frequencies

    2. Prediction of genotype frequencies

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    FREKUENSI ALEL

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    FREKUENSI GENOTIPE

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    FREKUENSI ALEL DAN GENOTIPE

    500 mahasiswa Jurusan Biologi FMIPA Unila diketahui 196 orang bergolongan darah A, 73 golongan B, 205 O, dan 26 AB.

    Tentukan frekuensi masing-masing alelnya!

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    FREKUENSI ALEL DAN GENOTIPE

    • Frekuensi Alel O O2 = 205/500 = 0,41 O = √ 0,41 = 0,64

    Jumlah Golongan Darah A dan O = 196 + 205 = 401

    (A+O)2 = 401/500 = 0,802 A + O = √ 0,802 = 0,9

    A = 0,9 – O = 0,9 – 0,64 = 0,26

    A + B + O = 1 B = 1 – A – O = 1 – 0,26 – 0,64 = 0,1

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    KESETIMBANGAN GENETIK

    • Kesetimbangan genetik menunjukkan bahwa frekuensi alel dan genotipe akan tetap dari generasi ke generasi

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    KESETIMBANGAN POPULASI

    • Frekuensi alel dan genotipe dalam sebuah populasi dapat berubah apabila terjadi:

    – Populasi kecil

    – Nonrandom mating

    – Mutasi

    – Genetic drift

    – Gene flow

    – Natural selection

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    POPULASI KECIL

    • Gene pool kecil

    • Peluang inbreeding tinggi

    • Variasi genetik rendah

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    NONRANDOM MATING

    • Sexual selection

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    MUTASI

    • Perubahan acak dari materi genetik

    – Gen

    – Kromosom

    • Menyebabkan munculnya alel baru atau hilangnya alel tertentu

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    GENETIC DRIFT

    Original population

    Bottlenecking event

    Surviving population

    Bottleneck Effect

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    GENE FLOW

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    NATURAL SELCTION

    • The Hardy-Weinberg principle requires that all individuals in a population be equally adapted to their environment and thus contribute equally to the next generation – This rarely happens

    • Natural selection acts to select the individuals that are best adapted for survival and reproduction

    • Natural selection acts on organism’s phenotype and changes allelic frequencies

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    KESETIMBANGAN GENETIK

    • Alam selalu berubah

    • Kesetimbangan genetik juga berubah seiring perubahan yang terjadi