Hydro Plant-Indonesia

download Hydro Plant-Indonesia

of 23

  • date post

    12-Nov-2014
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    73
  • download

    4

Embed Size (px)

description

halo

Transcript of Hydro Plant-Indonesia

Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Air

Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh

Hydro Power Plant

Isi Pendahuluan Tipe PLTA KomponenUtama Unjuk Kerja

Ringkasan

Pendahuluan(1)1. Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Air => listrik dari tenaga air 2. Sekitar 15% daya yang dibangkitkan di Malaysia

Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh

Hydro Power Plant

Hydro plants in Peninsular Malaysia

3. Fungsi lain PLTA:IrigasiReservoir Penstock

Pencegah Banjir

Pasokan air bersih

Pendahuluan (2)Keuntungan:

Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh

Hydro Power Plant

Air => sumber energi paling murah Biaya operasi & perawatan rendah Cepat dalam menghidupkan Cepat tanggap terhadap variasi beban Pembangkit berumur lebih panjang Kebutuhan pekerja rendah Tidak ada emisi Kerugian: Mempunyai fungsi guna yang lain Handal=> sedikit trippings Biaya konstruksi awal tinggi Lokasi jauh dari pusat beban Tergantung pada ketersediaan air Pembangunan perlu waktu lama Isu lingkungan seperti gundulnya hutan

Tipe-tipe PLTA (1)1. PLTA dapat digolongkan berdasarkan karakteristik aliran air/penampung

Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh

Hydro Power Plant

Run of river plants (mini hydro)2. Tipe: Storage/reservoir plants Pump storage plants 3. Type 1: Run of river plants: a. Utilize the water flow as it runs through the year b. No significant storage/dam for power generation c. Typical for mini-hydro scheme => suitable for low consumption at remote areas

d. Ukuran kapasitas : 10 - 1600 kW

Tipe-tipe PLTA (2)

Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh

Hydro Power Plant

3. Tipe 2: Pembangkit Penampung (Storage) / waduk (reservoir): a. Waduk (dams) berukuran besar => kapasitas pembangkitan tinggi

b. Tipe paling umum untuk pembangkitan daya komersial

Types of hydro plants (3)4. Pump storage plants: a. Used only for short duration=> to meet peak load

Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh

Hydro Power Plant

b. Water storage obtained by pumping back from tail race=> utilize low value, off-peak power (usually surplus) c. Improves overall efficiency & reliablity of system grid

Komponen-komponen utama (1)Reservoir Dam Inlet water ways Power house

Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh

Hydro Power Plant

Tailrace

Major components (2)1. Reservoir: a. Includes catchment area and water reservoir

Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh

Hydro Power Plant

b. Purpose: to store water

Hydro plant: Reservoir

c. Head race => water surface level of the reservoird. Reservoir can be natural or artificial (i.e. with dam)

2. Dam: a. A structure of masonry and/or rock fill built across a river b. Purpose: i) to provide head of water ii) to create storage or pondageHydro plant: Dam

Major components (3)

Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh

Hydro Power Plant

3. Inlet water ways: a. Passages through which is conveyed from dam to power house

b. Includes: Penstock/tunnel, spillways c. Penstock => closed pressure pipes madeof reinforced concrete or steel d. Tunnel => made by cutting mountains e. Spillways => provide discharge of surplus water fromHydro plant: Tunnel

Hydro plant: Spillways

storage reservoir into river

Major components (4)

Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh

Hydro Power Plant

4. Power House: a. Building that houses turbines, generators and other auxiliaries

b. Typical hydro plant turbines:* Pelton turbine => Impulse

Hydro plant: Turbine-generator

Hydro plant: Pelton turbine Hydro plant: Francis turbine Hydro plant: Kaplan turbine

* Francis turbine => Mainly reaction

* Kaplan turbine => Reaction5. Tail race: a. Passage for discharging water leaving the turbine

Bersia

Performance (1)1. Important hydro turbine parameters:Power Head Efficiency Specific speed

Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh

Hydro Power Plant

Discharge

2. Power generated from hydro plant is given by:

P Q H

P = Power Q = Rate of water flow H = head = efficiency

3. Specific speed: a. Speed of turbine when delivers 1 horsepower under 1 metre head

N P N s 5/ 4 H

N = Turbine speed

b. Independent of shape and size of turbine

c. Helps in selecting suitable type of turbine

Performance (2)4. Typical problems: a. Sedimentation: * Deposition of silt in the reservoir * Cause reduction of water storage capacity * Minimised by reclaimation/dredging b. Cavitation: * Formation of water vapour & air bubbles

Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh

Hydro Power Plant

due to reduction of pressure* Occurs mainly at discharge end of blades * Causes erosion of blade

* Prevention: material selection, selection of specific speed,polishing surfaces, optimum dimension of runner

Summary2. Main components: reservoir, dam, inlet water ways, powerhouse, tail race 3. Types of hydro turbine : Pelton, Francis, and Kaplan

Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh

Hydro Power Plant

1. Types of hydro plants: run of river, reservoir, & pump storage

4. Major hydro plant parameters: power, head, discharge,effciency and specific speed 5. Problem khas: sedimentasi dan kavitasi Thank You

Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh

Hydro Power Plant

Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh

Hydro Power Plant

PLTA: waduk (reservoir)Kenyir Bersia

Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh

Hydro Power Plant

PLTA: Bendungan (Dams)Kenyir

Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh

Hydro Power Plant

Bersia

PLTA: Terowongan (Tunnel)

Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh

Hydro Power Plant

Pergau

PLTA: Pelimpah (Spillways)

Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh

Hydro Power Plant

Pergau

Temengor

Kenyir

PLTA: Turbin-generator

Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh

Hydro Power Plant

Woh : Generator

Pergau : turbine pit

PLTA: turbin Pelton

Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh

Hydro Power Plant

Sg. Piah

PLTA: Turbin Francis

Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh

Hydro Power Plant

PLTA: Turbin Kaplan

Dr. Mohd Hariffin Boosroh

Hydro Power Plant