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Sejarah Taj Mahal dibangun sebagai peringatan untuk si cantik Arjumand Bano Begum yang dapat merebut hati pangeran Mughal. Arjumand Bano begum dinikahi pada usia 21 tahun oleh Putra ketiga Raja Jahangir, Pangeran Khurram, yang akhirnya mendapat gelar Shah Jahan. Mereka berdua hidup bahagia dan saling setia dalam istana megah dan mewah di Agra. Pada tahun 1628, Khurram menjadi raja setelah dia berhasil memenangkan sebuah peperangan. Dia mendapat gelar Shah Jahan atau raja dunia dan dia memberi gelar tertinggi untuk istri tercintanya, Mumtaz mahal atau istana yang agung dan Mumtaz ul Zamani atau keabadian. Tapi Mumtaz Mahal tidak ditakdirkan lama untuk menjadi ratu. Pada tahun 1631, Shah Jahan melakukan ekspedisi ke selatan, dan Mumtaz Mahal selalu mendampinginya. Mumtaz Mahal meninggal pada saat melahirkan di Burhanpur. Dia telah melahirkan empat belas anak, namun yang hidup hanya empat putra dan tiga putri. Mumtaz mahal meninggal ketika ia berumur 39 tahun. Shah Jahan dan seluruh warga sangat berduka. Tidak ada musik, peta, dan perayaan apa pun selama dua tahun. Kemudian Shah jahan membangun Taj Mahal untuk memperingatinya. Pembangunan Taj mahal Pembangunan Taj Mahal ini dimulai tahun 1633 dengan 20.000 pekerja selama 17 tahun. Mulai dari arsitek handal, ahli kaligrafi, ahli ukir, dan tukang batu didatangkan dari segala penjuru India, Persia, dan Turki. Tukang batu yang ahli didatangkan dari Baghdad, seorang yang ahli membuat kubah didatangkan dari Persia, dan seorang ahli pahat dari Delhi. Taj Mahal selesai pada tahun 1648. tapi, Shah Jahan diberhentikan oleh putranya Aurangzeb di tahun 1658 dan dipenjarakan di Benteng Agra. Shah Jahan melewatkan sisa hidupnya di Mussalman Burj memandangi Taj Mahal dimana istrinya, Mumtaj Mahal dimakamkan. Enam belas tahun kemudian Shah Jahan wafat, dan dimakamkan disamping istrinya.

The Taj Mahal.

In 1612, a prince called Jahan, met a pretty girl who was selling jewels in a market. Mumtaz Mahal was nineteen years old and of Tatar origin. They fell in love and decided to get married. Sixteen years later, the prince became Shah Jahan, Emperor of India. As Mumtaz Mahal did not want to live like the other eastern women who were submissive and only looked after their children, she gave her husband advice about the administration of the country. She showed great intelligence and determination when she chose to give more money to the poor and less to the rich. Unfortunately she died when giving birth to her fourteenth child in 1630. Stricken with grief, the Shah ordered the court to mourn for two years.He wanted to abdicate but it was not possible, as his children were too young to take his place as Emperor. In memory of his wife and as a token of his love, he erected a sort of temple on the bank of the Jumma River in Agra that he called the Taj Mahal. Seventeen years later, the monument,built by twenty thousand workers, was finished. It became Mumtaz Mahal's resting place. Her tomb is situated in the middle of a room magnificently decorated with jewels, pearls, gold and silver, precious stones and rich carpets. The Taj Mahal , with its four minarets and its sixty-five meter high dome, is totally made of white marble , the colour of which changes with the time of the day and the weather. According to a legend, the Shah wanted to build another Taj Mahal in black marble on the opposite side of the river but he did not have the time to erect it because his son took over his throne. So when he died, he was buried next to his beloved Mumtaz Mahal.

Rekonstruksi Koloseum dimulai dari perintah Raja Vespasian tahun 72 M dan terselesaikan oleh anaknya Titus pada tahun 80 M. Colosseum didirikan berdekatan dengan sebuah istana megah yang sebelumnya dibangun Nero, yang bernama Domus Aurea[2] yang dibangun sesudah kebakaran besar di Roma pada tahun 64 M. Dio Cassius seorang ahli sejarah mengatakan bahwa ada sekitar 9000 hewan buas yang telah terbunuh di 100 hari sebagai perayaan peresmian dan pembukaan Colosseum tersebut. Lantai dari arena Colosseum tertutupi oleh pasir untuk mencegah agar darah-darah tidak mengalir kemana-mana.

Koloseum masih digunakan sampai tahun 217, meskipun telah rusak kebakaran karena disambar petir. Koloseum telah diperbaiki di tahun 238 dan permainan gladiator berlanjut sampai umat kristen secara berangsur-angsur menghentikan permainan tersebut karena terlalu banyak memakan korban jiwa. Bangunan tersebut digunakan untuk menyimpan berbagai macam jenis binatang sampai pada tahun ke 524. Dua gempa bumi di tahun 442 dan 508 menyebabkan kerusakan yang parah pada bangunan tersebut. Di Abad pertengahan, Koloseum rusak sangat parah akibat gempa bumi lagi yakni pada tahun 847 dan 1349 dan dijadikan sebagai benteng dan sebuah gereja juga didirikan disana. Banyak batu marmer digunakan untuk melapisi dan membangun kembali bagian-bagian Koloseum yang telah rusak karena terbakar. Pada abad 16 dan 17, keluarga-keluarga Roman menggunakan Koloseum sebagai tempat pengambilan batu marmer untuk konstruksi bangunan St. Peters Basilica dan kediaman khusus palazzi, keluarga Roman. Pada tahun 1749, ada sebuah bentuk dari pemeliharaan Koloseum. Paus Benediktus XIV melarang untuk menggunakan Koloseum sebagai tempat penambangan. Pada tahun 2000 ada sebuah protes keras di Itali dalam rangka menentang penggunaan hukuman mati untuk negaranegara di seluruh dunia (di Italia, hukuman mati dihapuskan pada tahun 1948). Beberapa demonstran memakai tempat di depan Koloseum. Sejak saat itu, sebagai sebuah isyarat menentang kapitalis tersebut, penduduk lokal mengganti warna Koloseum di malam hari dari putih menjadi emas dengan menggunakan penerangan berupa lilin dan lampu neon sampai pada saat dimana seluruh dunia menghapuskan tindakan penghukuman mati itu.

Mumtaz Mahal

Prince Khurram Prince Khurram, who would become Shah Jahan, was born in India in the same month as the Prophet Mohammed in the auspicious year 1,000 of the Islamic calendar (January 15, 1592). He was named Khurram, which means "joyous," by his doting grandfather Akbar, who said the birth made the world glad. "He was born during the height of Akbar's power," says art historian Shobita Punja, "when most of India came under Mughal rule. He was very well educated, had brilliant teachers, and was quite an aesthete. He really was a very cultured human being." According to one of the youth's companions at court, Prince Khurram was a handsome youth, "possessed of a sharp wit, a wonderful memory, a love for details and the capacity to master them." Legend has it that the young prince charmed Arjumand Banu Begum (later named Mumtaz Mahal) at the Royal Meena Bazaar during the Moslem New Year festival, where merchants brought fine cloth, precious jewels and other goods for the harem and nobles of the court Though court poets celebrated the young girl's beauty, no contemporary likenesses of her are known to exist. According to author and art historian Milo Beach, "There are paintings that are labeled 'Mumtaz Mahal,' but they are simply generalized depictions of a Mughal beauty. There's virtually no contemporary account of her, because none of the historians would have had contact with her." Under Mohammed's law of "purdah," the law of the veil, women were obliged to hide their faces from public view. The only women depicted in paintings were court dancers and entertainers; it was taboo to paint royal women. "Royal women were kept in seclusion, but that has nothing to do with the power they held," adds Beach. "They clearly were extremely powerful. Shah Jahan's father, Jahangir, married a woman named Nur Jahan who was really the person who ran the empire for the second half of Jahangir's reign, when he became addicted to opium and alcohol. He barely functioned as an emperor, and she ran the country." "We know very little about Mumtaz Mahal except that she was the daughter of Asaf Khan, who was the Prime Minister for Shah Jahan and son of the Prime Minister for Jahangir whose sister, Nur Jahan, married Jahangir. You cannot be more closely related to the Imperial family than that. Many of Asaf Khan's cousins and other relatives were also placed in positions of enormous power in the Mughal court. So Mumtaz Mahal probably had a very important and influential role in her husband's life." Before marriage to Mumtaz Mahal, the Emperor Jahangir had arranged two other marriages for his son for political purposes. But although Shah Jahan had three regular wives, Mumtaz Mahal became his favorite and bore his only children. The Prince would not part with her even on his numerous military campaigns. In his suffering, she sustained him; in his glory, she inspired him to acts of charity and benevolence. Both comrade and counselor, she was beloved by him for her

unswerving loyalty and by his people for her wise and compassionate guidance. Year of Birth - 1592 Real Name - Khurram Father - Emperor Jahangir Mother - Princess Manmati Marriage - Married Arjumand Bano (Mumtaz Mahal) in 1612. She died in 1631, giving birth to his 14th children. Died - 1666 Rule Period - 1627 to 1658 Agra, once the capital of the Mughal Empire during the 16th and early 18th centuries, is two and a half hours by express train from New Delhi. Tourists from all over the world visit Agra not only to see the ruins of the red sandstone fortress built by the Mughal emperors but to make a pilgrimage to Taj Mahal, India's most famous architectural wonder. In a land where magnificent temples and edifices abound to remind visitors about the rich civilization of a country that is slowly but surely lifting itself into an industrialized society. The postcard picture of Taj Mahal falls short to convey the legend, the poetry and the romance that shroud what Rabindranath Tagore calls "a teardrop on the cheek of time". Taj Mahal means "Crown Palace" and is in fact the most well preserved and architecturally beautiful tomb in the world. It is best describe