Zoonosis tropis 2009

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    ZOONOSESZOONOSES

    dr. Muh. Nasrum Massi, Ph.D

    Faculty of Medicine

    Hasanuddin University

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    Zoonoses

    Transmission of the infectious agent

    to humans from an ongoing reservoir life cycle in animals,  without the

    permanent establishment of a new

    life cycle in humans Species Jumping

    The infectious agent derives from an

    ancient reservoir life cycle in animals, but they have established a new life

    cycle in humans that no longer

    involves the animals

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    Etiologic

    Classifcation

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     iral

     !acterial

     Parasitic

     Mycotic

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    Zoonoses" iral E#am$les

    Colorado tick fever Japanese encephalitis

    Ebola Monkeypox

    Equine encephalitides (EE, EEE, !EE"

    #ipah

    $antaviruses %abies

    $endra %ift !alley fever  

    $erpesvirus & est #ile virus

    'nfluena )ello* fever  

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    Zoonoses" !acterial E#am$les

     +nthrax lague

    &rucellosis sittacosis

    Campylobacteriosis - fever  

    Cat.scratch disease %elapsing fevers

    /eptospirosis 0almonellosis /isteriosis Tularemia

    /yme disease )ersiniosis

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    Zoonoses" Parasitic E#am$les

    PROTOZOAL !L"#$T#%

    Trypanosomiasis &aylisascariasis

    &abesiosis Cysticercosis

    Cryptosporidiosis $ydatidosis

    /eishmaniasis 0chistosome dermatitis

    1iardiasis Trichinosis

    Toxoplasmosis !isceral larva migrans and toxocariasis

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    Zoonoses" Mycotic E#am$les

    %s$er&illosis

    !lastomycosis

    'ry$tococcosis

    Dermato$hytosis

    Histo$lasmosis S$orotrichosis

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    Zoonoses" %nimal S$ecies

    2ogs 3 Cats

     4 %abies

     4 %ound*orm

     4 %ing*orm

     4 /yme 2isease (dogs only"

     4 Cat 0cratch 2isease (cats only"

    5ood +nimals  4 0almonella

     4 E6coli

     4 &rucellosis

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    Zoonoses" %nimal S$ecies

     &irds'  4 Psittacosis

     4 (est $ile

     4 %ryptococcus  Reptiles) *ish) +

    Amphibians  4 Salmonella

     4 "ycobacterium  (ild Animals

     4 antavirus

     4 Plague

     4 Tularemia

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    Routes o

    TransmissionDirect ( Dro$let or %erosol

    ( Oral

    ( 'ontact  )ndirect

    ( Food*orne

    ( +ater*orne ( Fomite

    ( ector*orne

    ( Environmental

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    Diseases in Human

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    Diseases  Leptospirosis

     Psittacosis

    Anthrax    Scrub typhus

       Avian inuena

       Rabies    !SE "!ovine s$on&iform

    ence$halo$athy-

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    EP/OSP)0OS)S

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     e$tos$irosis is an acute anthro$o 1oonotic infection

     )t occurs in tro$ical, su*tro$ical and tem$erate 1ones.

     +eil Disease, Hemorrha&ic  2aundice, Mud Fever, S3ineherd Disease,'anicola Fever, sevenday

    fever found commonly in 2a$an,'ane cutter4s disease in %ustralia, 0ice 5eld e$tos$irosis in )ndonesia , Fort !ra&& fever in U.S.%ndaman haemorrha&ic fever6%HF-

    iN/0ODU'/)ON

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    E$idemiolo&y

     !ndemic Locations where the infection is

    commonplace) caused by high rainfall) close

    human contact with livestoc, or wild animals)

    poor sanitation or wor,place e-posure .rice farming) etc/0

     1eneral

    Locations where the infection is at the

    international average of 2023 cases per 422)222) and infection is usually the result of

    accidental e-posure through wild rats)

    livestoc, or direct contact with water through

    leisure or occupation0

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     /he reservoirs for Leptospira  s$ecies include  a 3ide ran&e of

    3ild and domestic animals that may remain asym$tomatic 

    shedders for years.

    Leptospira  or&anisms e#creted in animal  urine, amniotic 7uid, or $lacental tissue are via*le in soil 

    or 3ater for 3ee8s to months.

    Humans *ecome infected throu&h  contact of mucosal surfaces or a*raded s8in 3ith contaminated 

    soil, 3ater, or animal tissues.

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     People who are predisposed by 

    occupation include abattoir and sewer workers, veterinarians,  farmers, and military personnel.

     Recreational exposures and clusters of

    disease have been associated with wading, swimming  (especially swallowing water), or boating in

    contaminated water,  

     particularlyduring flooding. Person-to-person transmission is rare.

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    Etiology

     /eptospirosis is caused by spirochetes of

    the genus Leptospira6

     /eptospires are classified into a number of

    species  

    defined by their degree of geneticrelatedness as determined  by 2#+

    reassociation6

     There are 78 named pathogenic and

    nonpathogenic species6    The genome sequence of Leptospira

    interrogans  serovar   /ai has been

    determined

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     The genera Leptospira contains three species namely L interrogans) L

    biflexa and L parv a0  4 The first includes 56 serogroups and

    more than 532 serovars and is the principal cause of leptospirosis in humans and animals0 most common being L. canicola, L. hardjo and L. hebdomadis.

     Two types of leptospirosis'  4 Anicteric leptospirosis or self7limited

    illness .839 to :29 of the cases/  4 #cteric leptospirosisor weil;s

    syndrome .39 to 429 /

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     #t is a thin spiral organism $%&mm x ' ( )$mm* +ith tightly set coils

      #t is characterie, by very active motility* by rotating "-spinning./

    an, ben,ing% 0sually one or bothen,s o this single(cell organism are bent or hoo1e,

     !ecause o their narro+ ,iameter* the leptospires are best visualie, by ,ar1(fel, illumination or phase contrast microscopy an, they ,o not stain rea,ily +ith aniline ,yes% 

    Leptospira interrogans

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    A microscopic vie+ o Leptospira# bacteria staine, apple green +ith a uorescent ,ye "rom the

    C2C3s Public 4ealth #mage

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    Reservoirs

     Wild and domestic animals rodents,

    livestock (cattle, horses, sheep, goats,

    swine), canines, and wild mammals are the reservoir for leptospirosis.

     Many animals have prolonged

    leptospiruria without suffering from the disease themselves. 

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    Modes of Transmission

     By direct or indirect contact of nasal, oral, or eye mucosal memranes or araded or

    traumati!ed skin with urine or carcasses of

    infected animals.

     "rine# $ndirect e%posure through water, soil, or foods contaminated y urine from infected

    animals is the most common route. &fter a

    short period of circulating high levels of the

    spirochete in their lood, animals shed the

    spirochete in their urine, contaminating the

    environment.

      $nhalation of droplet aerosols of contaminated

    fluids can occasionally occur

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     $ncuation period

    The incuation period is usually '

    ' days, ut usually (* + ' days) days.

     -eriod of ommunicaility or $nfectious

    -eriod   /umans with leptospirosis usually

    e%crete the organism in the urine for 0 weeks and occasionally for

    as long as 1 weeks. 

     -ersontoperson transmission is considered e%tremely rare.

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     2irect &ssay

     2emonstration of leptospires or

    their products#

     Microscopy  2arkfield microscopy

     -hase contrast microscopy

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