Terrorism Intro

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Law Enforcement Sensitive T E R R I S M E SEKILAS PANDANG Teguh W. Utomo

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Domestic Terrorism & Violent Extremism The Future ?

T e r r i s m e

Sekilas Pandang

Teguh W. UtomoLaw Enforcement Sensitive#Law Enforcement Sensitive#Apa Itu Terorisme?Definisi FBI Penggunaan force atau kekerasaan, dengan cara yang melanggar hukum, terhadap orang atau properti untuk mengintimidasi atau memaksa suatu pemerintahan, penduduk sipil, atau segmen apa pun, demi tujuan-tujuan politik atau sosial

Walter Laqueur

Terrorism constitutes the illegitimate use of force to achieve a political objective when innocent people are targeted.

Teguh Wahyu UtomoLaw Enforcement Sensitive#Apa Itu Terorismeyang terpenting adalah;

C A R AatauM E T O D ETeguh Wahyu UtomoLaw Enforcement Sensitive#Mengapa?Tak mampu mencapai tujuan melalui cara atau proses yang absah atau legalTak mampu secara langsung melawan secara militer

Teguh Wahyu UtomoLaw Enforcement Sensitive#SasarannyaMembuat takut orang sehingga mereka mau melakukan apa yang diinginkan si teroris

Law Enforcement Sensitive#Spektrum KonflikGangguan SipilPerang Nasional Global

MiliterTerorismePenegak HukumTeguh Wahyu UtomoLaw Enforcement Sensitive#Special Forces

Teguh Wahyu UtomoLaw Enforcement Sensitive#Konsep KunciFreedom and fear are at warEither you are with us, or you are with the terrorists.Presiden George W. Bush20 September 2001

Law Enforcement Sensitive#8Monday November 20, 2000

A bomb has exploded in the Gaza Strip next to an armoured bus transporting children and teachers from a Jewish settlement to a nearby elementary school. Two adults were killed and nine passengers wounded, among them at least four children. A radical Palestinian group based in Damascus claimed responsibility.May 29: Shooting in a yeshiva (Israeli high school), Israeli settlement of Itamar. 3 killed, 2 wounded.Separately, 2 Israeli brothers driving on the Ramallah bypass road on their way to Beit El were shot when the car was hit by bullets about 700 meters before the Burka junction. One was killed, the other wounded.Pakistan Christian School Closes Following Attacks ISLAMABAD, Aug 19, 02 (CWNews.com) - A school in Pakistan for children of missionaries will close for the next year after an attack by Islamic extremists that killed six people. "Given the trauma to the children and the possibility of further attacks, we cannot run a school that offers social and emotional support for children at this time," Russell Morton, director of the Murree Christian School, about 40 miles northeast of the capital, Islamabad, told The Associated Press. Three armed men entered the school's campus on August 5, randomly shooting workers, killing six people. None of the students were injured. Authorities said the three men belonged to the same group of extremists that attacked a Christian hospital's chapel four days later, killing four nurses.

Perkembangan TerorismeTerorisme sebenarnya bukan hal baruItu sudah digunakan untuk mempengaruhi perobahan politik, sosial, ekonomi, dan religius selama berabad-abadPenyebab konflik moderen yang mengarah ke terorisme juga tidak baruSudah dikembangkan dalam dasa warsa atau bahkan lebih dari satu abad

Teguh Wahyu UtomoLaw Enforcement Sensitive#Masa LaluZealot (2nd C B.C. - 1st C A.D.)Kristen awal (pembasmian paganisme, Reformasi abad 11)Katholik (menindak penentang, minoritas)Huguenots (abad 16 17)Perebutan Holy Land (Jihad vs Crusader)

Teguh Wahyu UtomoLaw Enforcement Sensitive#Terorisme Zaman PertengahanUNCLASSIFIED Reign of Terror di Prancis1773-1794, Jacobins di bawah kepemimpinan Maximilien RobespierreLaw Enforcement Sensitive#Mengapa Terorisme Moderen Beda dengan Terorisme Masal Lalu?TransportasiTeknologi senjataKepadatan PopulasiKomunikasiModernitas lainnya

Law Enforcement Sensitive#Pelanggaran hukum oleh TerorisPemboman Kepemilikan/ penggunaan senjataPembakaranPerampokan Pencurian kendaraan Berbagai pencurianPenggelapan Money launderingVandalismePembunuhan/ penyeranganPembasmian PenculikanPembajakanPelanggaran perbatasanLaw Enforcement Sensitive#Target TerorHard targetsPejabat tinggi pemerintahanPerwira militerPangkalan militerPos polisidllSoft targetsWarga sipil individualKawasan perbelanjaanHotel atau kawasan internasionalsekolahTempat-tempat budaya, olahraga, & keagamaan

UNCLASSIFIEDLaw Enforcement Sensitive#Melebarnya TargetMichael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. 2005Level 1: Tokoh pemerintahanLevel 2: Polisi & MiliterLevel 3: Pegawai pemerintahanLevel 4: Warga sipil tertentuLevel 5: semua warga sipilTeroris meningkatkan cakupan target untuk mencapai tujuan. Kebanyakan teroris moderen melibatkan sasaran sipil daripada hard targets.Teguh Wahyu UtomoLaw Enforcement Sensitive#Tokyo Subway Attack(Serangan gas sarin, oleh sekte Aum Shinri-kyo, 20 Maret 1995)12Tewas5.700 cedera fisik9.000+ cedera psikologis10.000-an merasa diterorTeguh Wahyu UtomoLaw Enforcement Sensitive#Beltway Snipers(Washington DC dan sekitarnya, 2 - 24 Oktober 2002)10Tewas3 cedera fisik100-an cedera psikologis100.000-an merasa diterorTeguh Wahyu UtomoLaw Enforcement Sensitive#Serangan 911(World Trade Center & Pentagon, 11 September 2001)3.025Tewas1.000-an cedera fisik10.000-an cedera psikologisSatu Negara Merasa DiterorTeguh Wahyu UtomoLaw Enforcement Sensitive#Terorisme era moderenChechnya (Federasi Rusia)Separatis Basque (Spanyol)Kawasan Darfur di SudanIrlandia UtaraTimur TengahTeguh Wahyu UtomoLaw Enforcement Sensitive#Organisasi teror irlandiaContinuity Army Council Cumann na mBan Fianna na hEireann Irish National Liberation Army Irish People's Liberation Organisation Irish Republican Army Loyalist Volunteer Force Orange Volunteers Red Hand Commando Red Hand Defenders Saor Eire Ulster Defence Association Ulster Freedom Fighters Ulster Volunteer Force

Law Enforcement Sensitive#Teroris di Amerika UtaraSDS Weatherman Symbionese Liberation ArmyFLQ (Quebec)Ku Klux Klan (KKK)The New Anarchists Patty Hearst as TaniaFront de Libration du Qubec

Law Enforcement Sensitive#UNCLASSIFIED

Law Enforcement Sensitive#Serangan terkenal9/11 Attack on WTCBom WTC, 26 Februari 1993, The Liberation Army, 5th BattalionBom Oklahoma City, 19 April1995, Timothy McVeigh Beslan Massacre, 1 September 2004, pemberontak Ingush dan Chechen menduduki sekolah in Beslan, Rusia, 366 tewas.Bom Truk atas Kedubes AS di Nairobi, Kenya, dan Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 1998,

Teguh Wahyu UtomoLaw Enforcement Sensitive#Serangan terkenalBom barak marinir AS dan Prancis di Lebanon, 23 Oktober 1983Pemboman atas pesawat Pan Am Flight 103, 21 Desember 1988, di atas Lockerbie.Serangan salmonella di Oregon, 9-19 September 1984, oleh sekte RajneesheeSerangan bubuk anthrax dalam surat yang dikirim antara 18 September hingga 9 Oktober 2001, ke beberapa outle tmedia dan dua SenatorsKapal perang USS Cole pada 12 Oktober 2000 mendapat serangan bom bunuh diri di pelabuhan Aden

Teguh Wahyu UtomoLaw Enforcement Sensitive#Kelompok Teroris terkenalAl-Qaeda Harakat Al-Muqawama Al-Islamia di PalestinaTaliban di AfghanistanHezbollah di LebanonLiberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam di SrilankaKurdistan Worker's Party di Turki Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia Jamaat Ansar al-Sunna di IrakAden-Abyan Islamic Army di Yaman

Baader-Meinhof Group (Red Army Faction) di JermanyRed Brigades di ItaliaRevolutionary Struggle di Yunani Shining Path di PeruETA (Basque) di SpanyolFatah (PLO) di PalestinaIRA di Irlandia UtaraPKK (Kurdish) di TurkiKlu Klux Klan (U.S.; Christian)Abu Sayyaf di FilipinaIslamic Jihad di MesirGush Emunim Underground, Keshet, Bat Ayin Underground, Brit HaKanaim, Malchut Yisrael, di Israel dan Palestina Teguh Wahyu UtomoLaw Enforcement Sensitive#Teroris peroranganBaruch Goldstein Yigal AmirThimoty McVeigh

Teguh Wahyu UtomoLaw Enforcement Sensitive#Metode seranganTeroris mempelajari dulu dari uapay teror sebelumnyaSasarannya asimetri bukan untuk mengalahkan yang kuat, tapi untuk menunjukkan bahwa yang kuat bisa ditembusTeguh Wahyu UtomoLaw Enforcement Sensitive#Questions?Teguh Wahyu UtomoLaw Enforcement Sensitive#