Tata Kelola Organisasi

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bintek tata kelola Jawa Timur

Transcript of Tata Kelola Organisasi

  • Culture - Budaya Sebagai Dasar Tata Kelola Organisasi

    Apol Pribadi

    Workshop Tatakelola TI Dinas Kominfo Provinsi Jawa Timur Sidoarjo, 2013

  • Organizational Stakeholders

  • National Culture

    Culture collective programming of the mind

    Based on Values & Norms Values deeply held underlying beliefs and attitudes that help

    determine a persons behavior

    Norms unwritten rules and codes and conduct that prescribe appropriate behavior in particular situations and shape the behavior of people toward one another.

  • The Organizations Culture

    Organizational Culture

    A system of shared meanings and common beliefs held by organizational members that determines, in a large degree, how they act towards each other.

    The way we do things around here.

    Values, symbols, rituals, myths, and practices

    Implications:

    Culture is a perception.

    Culture is shared.

    Culture is descriptive.

  • Dimensions of Organizational Culture

  • Contrasting Organizational Cultures

    Dimension Organization A Organization B

    Attention to Detail High Low

    Outcome Orientation Low High

    People Orientation Low High

    Team Orientation Low High

    Aggressiveness Low High

    Stability High Low

    Innovation and Risk Taking Low High

  • 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 37

    Strong versus Weak Cultures

    Strong Cultures Are cultures in which key values are deeply held and widely held.

    Have a strong influence on organizational members.

    Factors Influencing the Strength of Culture Size of the organization No impact with IT

    Age of the organization

    Rate of employee turnover

    Strength of the original culture

    Clarity of cultural values and beliefs

  • Benefits of a Strong Culture

    Creates a stronger employee commitment to the organization.

    Aids in the recruitment and socialization of new employees.

    Fosters higher organizational performance by instilling and promoting employee initiative.

  • Organizational Culture

    Sources of Organizational Culture The organizations founder

    Vision and mission

    Past practices of the organization

    The way things have been done

    The behavior of top management

    Continuation of the Organizational Culture Recruitment of like-minded employees who fit

    Socialization of new employees to help them adapt to the culture

  • Strong versus Weak Organizational Cultures

  • How Employees Learn Culture

    Stories

    Narratives of significant events or actions of people that convey the spirit of the organization

    Rituals

    Repetitive sequences of activities that express and reinforce the values of the organization

    Material Symbols

    Physical assets distinguishing the organization

    Language

    Acronyms and jargon of terms, phrases, and word meanings specific to an organization

  • How Culture Affects Managers

    Cultural Constraints on Managers

    Whatever managerial actions the organization recognizes as proper or improper on its behalf

    Whatever organizational activities the organization values and encourages

    The overall strength or weakness of the organizational culture

    Simple rule for getting ahead in an organization:

    Find out what the organization rewards and do those things.

  • How an Organizations Culture Is Established and Maintained

  • Managerial Decisions Affected by Culture

    Planning

    The degree of risk that plans should contain

    Whether plans should be developed by individuals or teams

    The degree of environmental scanning in which management will engage

    Organizing

    How much autonomy should be designed into employees jobs

    Whether tasks should be done by individuals or in teams

    The degree to which department managers interact with each other

  • Managerial Decisions Affected by Culture (contd)

    Leading

    The degree to which managers are concerned with increasing employee job satisfaction

    What leadership styles are appropriate

    Whether all disagreementseven constructive onesshould be eliminated

    Controlling

    Whether to impose external controls or to allow employees to control their own actions

    What criteria should be emphasized in employee performance evaluations

    What repercussions will occur from exceeding ones budget

  • Spirituality and Organizational Culture

    Workplace Spirituality

    The recognition that people have an inner life that nourishes and is nourished by meaningful work that takes place in the context of community.

    Characteristics of a Spiritual Organization

    Strong sense of purpose

    Focus on individual development

    Trust and openness

    Employee empowerment

    Toleration of employees expression

  • Benefits of Spirituality

    Improved employee productivity

    Reduction of employee turnover

    Stronger organizational performance

    Increased creativity

    Increased employee satisfaction

    Increased team performance

    Increased organizational performance

  • The Role of Culture in Governance

  • Culture

    Helps us organize our world

    Shared values, understandings, assumptions and goals (values, beliefs, norms)

    Learned from earlier generation

    Imposed by present members of society

  • Culture and Its Effects on Organizations

    Once upon a time there was a great flood, and involved in this flood were two creatures, a monkey and a fish. The monkey, being agile and experienced, was lucky enough to scramble up a tree and escape the raging waters. As he looked down from his safe perch, he saw the poor fish struggling against the swift current. With the best of intentions, he reached down and lifted the fish from the water. The result was inevitable.

  • Culture and Its Effects on Organizations

  • GLOBE CLUSTER

  • Hofstede Cultural Framework

    1. Power Distance

    2. Individualism vs. Collectivism

    3. Masculinity vs. Femininity

    4. Uncertainty Avoidance

    5. Long Term (Time)

    Orientation

  • Power Distance

    Power Distance degree to which societies accept the economic and social differences in wealth, status, and well-being that result

    from differences in individual capabilities.

    Low PD large inequities are not allowed

    e.g., USA & UK

    High PD large gap between rich and poor

    E.g., Russia, China, & France

  • Power Distance

    High Power Distance

    Order of inequality

    Special privileges

    Subordinates are different from superiors

    Boss should know all

    Low Power Distance

    Minimize inequalities

    Equal rights

    Subordinates and superiors are equals

    Ok for boss to ask subordinates for answers

  • Power Distance Comparisons High

    Low

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    U.S.A.

    Cana

    da

    Ger

    man

    y

    Japa

    n

    Fran

    ce

    Nethe

    rland

    s

    Hon

    g Kon

    g

    Indo

    nesia

    Wes

    t Afri

    ca

    Russia

    P.R.

    C

    PD

  • High Power Distance Employee Expectations

    Wrong to disagree with the boss

    Paternalistic (father-like) management style

    Boss should know all the answers

    Boss should have more privileges

  • Uncertainty Avoidance

    Uncertainty Avoidance refers to differences in tolerances for

    uncertainty and risk.

    Low uncertainty avoidance countries are easygoing, value diversity,

    and tolerate differences in personal beliefs and actions

    e.g., USA & UK

    High uncertainty avoidance countries are more rigid and skeptical

    about people whose behaviors or beliefs differ from the norm.

    e.g., Russia, China, France, & Japan

  • Uncertainty Avoidance

    High

    Avoid risks

    Dissonance is dangerous

    Time is money

    Need written rules and regulations

    Believe in experts

    Low

    Willing to take risks

    Accept disagreements

    Time is free

    Prefer common sense to rules

    Logic and common sense better than expert opinions

  • Uncertainty Avoidance Average=64

    High avoidance of risk Willing to take risks

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    U.S.A

    .

    Canada

    Germ

    any

    Japan

    France

    Nethe

    rlands

    Hong Kong

    Indonesi

    a

    West

    Africa

    Russi

    a

    P.R.C

    UA

  • Individualism v. Collectivism

    Individualism worldview that values individual freedom and self-expression and adherence to the principle that people should be judged by their individual

    achievements rather than their social background.

    e.g., USA, UK, Russia, & France

    Collectivism worldview that values subordination of the individual to the goals of the group and adherence to the principles that people should be judged by

    their contribution to the group.

    e.g., China & Japan

  • Individualism Collectivism

    Responsible for self and immediate family

    Identity based on the in