Souvia Rahimah Jatinangor, 26 Maret .PENGOLAHAN SUSU Souvia Rahimah Jatinangor, 26 Maret 2010 ...

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Transcript of Souvia Rahimah Jatinangor, 26 Maret .PENGOLAHAN SUSU Souvia Rahimah Jatinangor, 26 Maret 2010 ...

  • PENGOLAHAN SUSU

    Souvia Rahimah

    Jatinangor, 26 Maret 2010

    JurusanJurusan TeknologiTeknologi IndustriIndustri PanganPangan

    FTIP FTIP UnivesitasUnivesitas PadjadjaranPadjadjaran

    Jatinangor, 26 Maret 2010

  • Produk-Produk Susu

  • Produk Susu

  • Produk Susu

  • Milk Product Tree

  • Penyebaran Produk Susu Dunia

  • SUSU KENTAL

    (CONDENSED MILK)

  • Susu Kental

    Susu segar yang kadar airnya dikurangimenggunakan pemanasan sekurang-kurangnya 100 C.

    Susu kantal :Susu penuh kental manis (Sweetened Condensed Whole Milk)Condensed Whole Milk)

    Susu bawah kental manis (Sweetened Condensed Skim Milk)

    Susu penuh kental tawar (Condensed Whole Milk)

    Susu bawah kental tawar (Condensed Skim Milk)

  • Susu Kental

    SCWM :

    Dicampur sukrosa, kemudian dipekatkan di dalamkaleng tertutup pada suhu sekurang-kurangnya 100

    SCSM:

    Lemaknya sudah dikurangi kemudian Dicampursukrosa, kemudian dipekatkan di dalam kalengtertutup pada suhu sekurang-kurangnya 100tertutup pada suhu sekurang-kurangnya 100

    UCWM :

    Susu evaporasi, lemak tidak kurang dari 7,8 % danpadatan 25,5 %

    UCSMSusu evaporasi, lemak tidak kurang dari 0,1 % danpadatan 25,5 %

  • PENGOLAHAN SUSU KENTAL MANIS

    Menurut Codex (CODEX STAN 282-1971) :

    SKM adalah produk susu yang diperolehdengan cara mengurangi kadar air denganpenambahan gula, dan/atau melalui caralain yang dapat menghasilkan produk yang sama.sama.

    Penambahan lemak atau protein dapatdilakukan untuk menyesuaikan denganstandar yang berlaku tanpa mengganggurasio alami whey protein dengan casein.

    Produk akhir mengndung minimal 8 % lemak susu, sekitar 45 % gula dan 28 % padatan

  • Pengolahan SKM

    Prinsip Pengolahan SKM :Menguapkan sebagian air sampai kadarair yang dikehendaki, kemudian diberitambahan gula/sukrosa

    Perusahaan besar melakukanpenguapan pada T 570 C, P < 1 atm (60 penguapan pada T 570 C, P < 1 atm (60 62,5 mm Hg) menggunakan Vacuum Pan

    Sebelumnya di pasteurisasi pada T 650 C selama 30 menit atau T 750 C selama 15 menit

  • Standar di Beberapa Negara

  • ESSENTIAL COMPOSITION AND

    QUALITY FACTORS

    Raw MaterialMilk and milk powder*, cream and cream powders*, milkfat products*.

    The following milk products are allowed for protein adjustment purposes:

    milk retentate : the product obtained by milk retentate : the product obtained by concentrating milk protein by ultrafiltration of milk, partly skimmed milk, or skimmed milk;

    milk permeate : the product obtained by removing milk proteins and milkfat from milk partly skimmed milk, or skimmed milk by ultrafiltration; and

    lactose

  • Permitted ingredients

    Potable water

    Sugar

    Sodium chloride

    In this product, sugar is generally

    considered to be sucrose, but a considered to be sucrose, but a

    combination of sucrose with other sugars,

    consistent with Good Manufacturing

    Practice, may be used.

  • Komposisi :

    Sweetened condensed milk

    Minimum milkfat 8% m/m

    Minimum milk solids** 28% m/m

    Minimum milk protein in milk solids-not-fat**

    34% m/m

    Sweetened condensed skimmed milkSweetened condensed skimmed milk

    Maximum milkfat 1% m/m

    Minimum milk solids** 24% m/m

    Minimum milk protein in milk solids-not-fat**

    34% m/m

  • Sweetened condensed partly skimmed

    milk

    Milkfat More than 1% and less than 8% m/m

    Minimum milk solids-not-fat** 20% m/m

    Minimum milk solids** 24% m/m

    Minimum milk protein in milk solids-not-fat**

    34% m/m34% m/m

    Sweetened condensed high-fat milk

    Minimum milkfat 16% m/m

    Minimum milk solids-not-fat** 14% m/m

    Minimum milk protein in milk solids-not-fat**

    34% m/m

  • FOOD ADDITIVES

    Firming agents (2 g/kg bahan atau 3 g/kg in combination)

    508 Potassium chloride

    509 Calcium chloride

    Stabilizers (2 g/kg bahan atau 3 g/kg in combination)combination)

    331 Sodium citrates

    332 Potassium citrates

    333 Calcium citrates

    Pengental (150 mg/kg bahan)407 Carrageenan

  • Acidity regulators (2 g/kg bahan atau 3 g/kg in combination)

    170 Calcium carbonates

    339 Sodium phosphates

    340 Potassium phosphates

    341 Calcium phosphates

    450 Diphosphates

    451 Triphosphates451 Triphosphates

    452 Polyphosphates

    500 Sodium carbonates

    501 Potassium carbonates

    Emulsifier322 Lecithins

  • Kontaminan

    Heavy metalsThe products covered by this Standard shall comply with the maximum limits established by the Codex AlimentariusCommission.

    Pesticide residuesPesticide residuesThe products covered by this Standard shall comply with the maximum residue limits established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission.

  • HYGIENE

    Sesuai dengan peraturan yang diterapkan oleh :

    Recommended International Code of Practice General Principles of Food Hygiene (CAC/RCP 1-1969)

    the Code of Hygienic Practice for Milk and Milk Products (CAC/RCP 57-2004) Products (CAC/RCP 57-2004)

    other relevant Codex texts such as Codes of Hygienic Practice and Codes of Practice.

    The products should comply with any microbiological criteria established in accordance with the Principles for the Establishment and Application of Microbiological Criteria for Foods (CAC/GL 21-1997).

  • LABELLING

    Nama Produk :Nama produk sebaiknya adalah :

    Sweetened condensed milk

    Sweetened condensed skimmed milk

    Sweetened condensed partly skimmed milk

    Sweetened condensed high-fat milkSweetened condensed high-fat milk

    Tergantung pada komposisi, Sweetened condensed yang mengandung skimmed milk dapat disebutsweetened condensed semi-skimmed milk bila kandungan lemaksusunya 4.04.5% dan min padatannya28%.

  • Standar Nasional Indonesia

    SNI 01-2971-1998

    Syarat mutu susu kental manis : Air (20-30%), bahan kering (70-80%) abu (115-2,2%), lemak (8-10%), lemak (8-10%), protein (7-10%), Laktosa (10-14%), sakarosa ( 42-48%), bahan pengawet (negatif), logam berbahaya (negatif), bakteri (negatif).

  • Komposisi

  • Proses

  • Proses Pengolahan

    Pre-TreatmentSusu harus memiliki kualitas yang baik sesuaidengan standar kualitas susu segar

    Pre-HeatingPasteurisasi dengan suhu 90 100o C, t 10 Pasteurisasi dengan suhu 90 100o C, t 10 25 menit

    Pemanasan 100 120o C, t 2 3 menit

    StandarisasiMengatur rasio lemak dan MSNF, sesui dengankomposisi produk akhir yang diinginkan

  • Penambahan Gula

    Konsentrasi gula yang ditambahkan tidak

    kurang dari 63,5 % basis basah tapi tidak

    lebih dari 64,5 %

    Konsentrasi produk akhir : 60 80 %

    padatan

    Sebelum penambahan gula SusuSebelum penambahan gula Susu

    dipanaskan terlebih dahulu hingga suhu

    50 60o C. Setelah gula larut dilanjutkan

    dengan pemanasan lanjutan.

  • Pemekatan

    Pendinginan

    Standarisasi

    Packaging

  • Masalah dalam pengolahan SKM

    Skim milk powder and full cream milk powder are very cohesive and difficult to wet out, making handling and controlled powder addition difficult.

    The powders will form agglomerates when added to the liquid. Agitators do not produce sufficient shear to rapidly break these down.sufficient shear to rapidly break these down.

    Dissolving high concentrations of sugar using agitators is a slow process.

    High pressure homogenization may be required to ensure the product is agglomeratefreeand properly dispersed.

  • Alat Pengolahan SKM

    High Shear Batch

    Mixers

    Suitable for

    batches of up to

    300 gallons

    Can be used on Can be used on

    mobile floor

    stands

    Can easily be

    moved from

    vessel to vessel

  • High Shear In-Line Mixers

    Ideal for larger batches

    Easily retro fitted to existing plant

    Must be used in conjunction with an efficient in-tank agitator to wet out agitator to wet out powder

    Aeration free

    Self pumping

    Can be used to discharge vessel

    Ultra Hygienic models available

  • Silverson FlashblendIdeal for larger batches

    Capable of rapidly incorporating very large volumes of milk powder

    Sugar is then added straight into the vessel.

    Recirculation through the In-Line mixer accelerates the dissolving process

    Minimized aerationMinimized aeration

    Minimized cleaning requirements

    Controlled powder addition rate

    Minimum operator input required

    Optional hopper flow aids available

  • Kerusakan SKM

    Kerusakan oleh bakteri :Gassy Fermentation

    Bacterial Thickening

    Buttons

    Kerusakan akibat perubahan fisik atauKerusakan akibat perubahan fisik ataukimiawi :

    Grittiness : berpasir

    Grown coloration

  • Pemeriksaan Kaleng SKM

    Superficial Inspection

    Keadaan umum kaleng : bocor, karat, dll

    More Detailed Physical Inspection

    Pemeriksaan terhadap kaleng yang

    cembungcembung

    Basanya kaleng dibuka

  • SUSU BUBUK

    (FULL CREAM AND SKIM MILK)

  • Pendahuluan

    Pertama kali dibuat secara komersial

    di Inggris 1855.

    Dibuat dengan cara semprot (spray

    process) atau pengeringan silinder

    (drum process)(drum process)

    Bahan baku : susu segar, krim, skim,

    butter milk dan whey

  • Kualitas susu bubuk

    Daya larut

    Warna

    Higroskopis

    RasaRasa

    Kadar lemak

  • Cara Pembuatan Susu Bubuk

    Spray Dryer