Shadow Puppet (Wayang Kulit)

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  • 7/28/2019 Shadow Puppet (Wayang Kulit)





    Shadow Puppet (Wayang Kulit)

    ENGLISH I 02PARAnastasia Prisilla (1200985331)

    Arditha Auriyane (1301024686)Carolina (1301028500)Cynthia (1301028690)

    Daniel Tjoa (1301057646)Eugene Velardi (1301052001)

    B I N U S U N I V E R S I T Y

  • 7/28/2019 Shadow Puppet (Wayang Kulit)


    Achitecture 09 Binus University 2


    Slide 1: Brief History

    - Wayang is one of the indigenous storytelling traditions- Wayang gave impact on the development of traditional puppet theatre.

    Wayang today is both the most ancient and most popular form of puppet theatre in the

    world. Wayang is one of the indigenous storytelling traditions that had a profound impact

    on the development of traditional puppet theatre.

    - Si Galigi Mawayang (Sir Galigi Played Wayang)o the first record of wayang performanceo special royal occassiono performed a story about Bhima from Mahabarata

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    Achitecture 09 Binus University 3

    The first record of a wayang performance is from an inscription dated 930 CE which says "si

    Galigi mawayang,"or "Sir Galigi played wayang". Galigi was an itinerant performer who was

    requested to perform for a special royal occasion. At that event he performed a story about

    the hero Bhima from the Mahabharata.

    - Wayang was used by the Hindus and Muslim to spread their religiono Mahabarata and Ramayana storieso Represents harmony between Hinduism and traditional Indonesian culture.

    It is believed that wayang was brought by Indian traders before Hinduism. The Hindus

    changed the Wayang (as did the Muslims, later) to spread their religion, mostly by stories

    from the Mahabharata or the Ramayana. Later this mixture of religion and wayang play was

    praised as harmony between Hinduism and traditional Indonesian culture. On Java, the

    western part ofSumatra and some smaller islands traditionalists continued to play the old

    stories for some time, but the influence of Hinduism prevailed and the traditional stories

    were forgotten, or were integrated into the Hinduistic plays.
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    Achitecture 09 Binus University 4

    Slide 2: The Birth Of Wayang Kulit

    - In Islam, the display of God or gods in human form was prohibited.-

    King Raden Patah wanted to see the wayang in traditional form.- Instead of showing the figures they display only the shadow of the wayang figures

    made of leather.

    - Wayang kulit or shadow puppets as the best known Indonesian wayang:o UNESCO on November 7th, 2003, Wayang Kulit as a Masterpiece of Oral and

    Intangible Heritage of Humanity.

    When Islam began spreading in Indonesia, the display of God or gods in human form was

    prohibited, and thus this style of painting and shadow play was suppressed. King Raden

    Patah of Demak, Java, wanted to see the wayang in its traditional form, but failed to obtain

    permission from the Muslim religious leaders. As an alternative, the religious leaders

    converted the wayang golekinto wayang purwa made from leather, and displayed only the

    shadow instead of the figures itself. Instead of the forbidden figures only their shadow

    picture was displayed.

    Wayang kulit, or shadow puppets prevalent in Java and Bali in Indonesia, are without a

    doubt the best known of the Indonesian wayang. Wayang kulit show was aprooved by the

    UNESCO on November 7th, 2003, as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of

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    Achitecture 09 Binus University 5

    Slide 3: Wayang Golek or Wayang Kulit?

    There are certain types of wayang in Indonesia. The famous 2 are wayang golek and wayang

    kulit. As mentioned before, wayang golek existed before wayang kulit was used to presentGod or gods in Islamic stories.

    Basically, wayang golek is played more often in West Java. They are figurines more in 3

    dimensional way, and they are wooden puppets.

    On the other hand, wayang kulit is more popularly known in Central and East Java, and its

    main feature that differenciates the most is that wayang kulit are made of leather. These

    are some varieties of wayang kulit in Indonesia:

    Wayang Kulit Gagrag Yogyakarta Wayang Kulit Gagrag Surakarta Wayang Kulit GagragBanyumasan Wayang Bali Wayang Kulit Banjar (South Borneo) Wayang Palembang (South Sumatra) Wayang Betawi (Jakarta) Wayang Cirebon (West Java) Wayang Madura (Extinct) Wayang Siam.

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    Achitecture 09 Binus University 6

    Slide 4: Materials

    - the puppets:o Buffalo hideo Bamboo Stickso Buffalo horn handleso Control Rods.

    - the screen:o Cotton screeno Oil lamp; nowadays replaced with halogen electric light or spotlights.

    Wayang Kulit is a unique form of theatre employing light and shadow. The puppets are

    crafted from buffalo hide and mounted on bamboo sticks. When held up behind a piece of

    white cloth, with an electric bulb or an oil lamp as the light source, shadows are cast on the

    screen. Today, the source of light used in wayang performance in Java is most often a

    halogen electric light. Some modern forms of wayang such as Wayang Sandosa created in

    the Art Academy at Surakarta (STSI) has employed spotlights, colored lights and other


    Kulit means skin, and refers to the leather construction of the puppets that are carefully cutwith very fine tools and supported with carefully shaped buffalo horn handles and control

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    Achitecture 09 Binus University 7

    Slide 5: The Making

    Master models on paper

    traced out onto skin

    smoothed with glass bottle

    painting process

    attaching the movable parts and

    central stick.

    The handwork involved in making a wayang

    kulit figure that is suitable for a performance

    takes several weeks, with the artists working

    together in groups. They start from master

    models, typically on paper, which are traced

    out onto the bufallo skin, providing the

    figures with an outline of any holes that will

    need to be cut, such as for the mouth or eyes.

    The figures are then smoothed, usually with a

    glass bottle, and primed. The structure is

    inspected and eventually the details are

    worked through. A further smoothing follows

    before individual painting, which is

    undertaken by yet another craftsman. They

    usually use spray techniques to paint the lessexpensive puppets made of cardboard. In the

    painting process, each person handles

    different colors.

    Finally, the movable parts ( the upper arms, lower arms with hands and the associated sticks

    for manipulation) are mounted on the body, which has a central stick by which it is held. A

    crew makes up to ten figures at a time, typically completing that number over the course of

    a week.

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    Achitecture 09 Binus University 8

    Slide 6: Stories

    - Classic Indian epic storieso The Mahabaratao The Ramayana.

    - Current issues.- Other secular stories from Tok Dalang.

    Wayang Kulit plays are invariably based on romantic tales, especially adaptations of the

    classic Indian epics, "The Mahabarata" and "The Ramayana".

    The green figure shown on the right side of the screen is one of the villain character in the

    Mahabarata story, Pandhita Durna.He was a sacred pandhita in Sokalima, the teacher of the

    sons of King Astina. In the Indian version of the story, Drona is honored. While in Javanese

    version of the story, pandhitaDurna is illustrated as an immoral teacher. In the story he sentBima, his disciple, to find the Perwita Sari water, which he claimed as the water of life. He

    sent Bima on purpose to doom him, despite the fact that actually the water have never


    The fatty figure on the left side of pandhita Durna is Bagong. His story is a journey to save

    the missing Pandawa treasure. He was accused to be the thief, while actually the one who

    stole the treasure was another Bagong. With the help from Dewata, finally the real Bagong

    could defeat his imposer and succesfully saved the Pandawa treasure.

    Some of the plays are also based on local happenings or current issues or. It is also up to theconductor or "Tok Dalang" to decide his direction.

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    Achitecture 09 Binus University 9

    Slide 7: Dalang

    - Dalang works as the narrator, modulates his voice to create climaxes.- Provides resonant melody and rhythm.- Some famous Dalangs:

    o Ki Nartosabdhoo Ki Anom Surotoo Ki Asep Sunaryao Ki Suginoo Ki Manteb Sudarsono.

    The Dalang is the genius behind the entire performance. It is he who sits behind the screenand narrates the story. With a traditional orchestra in the background to provide a resonant

    melody and its conventional rhythm, the Dalang modulates his voice to create suspense

    thus heightening the drama. Invariably, the play climaxes with the triumph of good over evil.

    Hundreds of people will stay up all night long to watch the superstar performers, dalang,

    who command extravagant fees and are international celebrities. Some of the most famous

    dalang in recent history are Ki Nartosabdho, Ki Anom Suroto, Ki Asep Sunarya, Ki Sugino, and

    Ki Manteb Sudarsono.

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    Achitecture 09 Binus University 10

    Source Google Image Search, keywords: wayangkulit, wayanggolek