Sensor Penginderaan Jauh

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Transcript of Sensor Penginderaan Jauh

Wahana dan Sensor Penginderaan Jauh

Wahana dan Sensor Penginderaan JauhMega L. Syamsuddin, Ph.D

Remote sensing2013Sub pokok bahasanWahana & sensor penginderaan jauhSatelit penginderaan jauhTujuan Pembelajaran Khusus:

Mahasiswa mampu menjelaskan wahana dan sensor yang digunakan dalam sistem penginderaan jauhPLATFORM & SENSORSensor adalah alat yang merekam dan mengukur energi elektromagnetik.Sensor di pasang pada wahana (Platform) dan letaknya jauh dari obyek yang diindera.

Satellite image example:

Platform: Landsat (1, 5, 7 etc..)

Sensor: Multispectral Sensor (MSS) or Thematic Mapper (TM)

3ORBIT

Geostationary orbit Polar orbitLintasanBarat-timurUtara-selatanInklinasi0, di bidang ekuator90 (+)&(-)Altitude36000 km600-1500 kmLiputanTetap pada posisi tertentuTimur ke baratSifatGeosynchronous (sinkron thd bumi)Sunsynchronous (sinkron thd matahari)Ascending and Descending passesGeostationary orbit Polar orbit

-Weather images: GOES (Geostat. Operational Env. Satellite) Geostationary

5Sun-synchronous

SensorSensor Aktif: terdiri dari radiometer yang dilengkapi dengan alat pemancar (u memancarkan gelombang mikro), alat perekam dan monitor; dikembangkan untuk menghilangkan kesalahan citra yang diakibatkan oleh awan dan kabut.Sensor Pasif: dilengkapi dengan alat perekam dan monitor. Sensor ditempatkan di satelit yang secara alami dapat merekam gelombang pantul dan atau hambur dari objek.

ITC, 1999Sensor groupsMulti-spectral sensors record bands in multiple wavelengths: Visible Near IR Mid IR Thermal Microwave

And at different spatial resolutions: Low Medium High Very high

Satellite remote sensing systemsNASA Visible Earth:Wim Bakker's website http://members.home.nl/wim.h.bakkerLANDSAT Swath Width: 185 km Repeat Cycle 16 days Orbit Altitude: 705 km Equatorial Crossing: at around 10 a.m. local solar time

Spectral Bands of Landsat-7

USA, 1999SPOTBand (m) Spectral range (m) Spatial resolution (m) B1 (Green) .500 - .590 20 B2 (Red) .610 - .680 10 and 20 B3 (Near IR) .790 - .890 20 SWIR (MIR) 1.58 - 1.75 20Systeme Pour lObservation de la Terre (France)

SPOT-5 (2002) Swath Width: 60 km Repeat Cycle 26 days Orbit Altitude: 832 km 12Summary table: Landsat TM versus SPOT HRV (1980s)

LANDSAT TMSPOT HRVLaunch1982 / 19841986Altitude705 km832 kmAttitude (polar)8.2 degrees8.7 degreesEquatorial time10 am10.30 amSwath width185km60kmRepeat coverage16 days26 days SensorThematic Mapper (TM)High Resolution Visible (HRV)Number of detectors1006000/3000Advantages#bands, swath sizehigher resolution, #'looks'Bands71 + 3

IKONOSUSA, September 1999

Repeat Cycle 1-3 days Orbit Altitude: 681 kmBand (m) Spectral range (m) Spatial resolution (m)1 (Blue) 0.45-0.52 4 2 (Green) 0.51-0.60 4 3 (Red) 0.63-0.70 4 4 NIR 0.76-0.85 4 Pan(VNIR)0.45-0.90 1Quickbird

USA, 2001SPOT-5 (2002) Swath Width: 16 km Repeat Cycle 1-4 days Orbit Altitude: 450 km Sensor Spectral range (m) Spatial resolution (m)EBM (Blue) 0.45-0.49 15 EBM (Red) 0.61-0.68 15 EBM (NIR) 0.79-0.89 15 EBP (VNIR) 0.45-0.80 3

GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites)The GOES series of satellites is the primary weather observation platform for the United States. The latest generation, GOES I-M, represent an advance in data products for weather forecasting and storm warnings over the previous series of geostationary satellites.GOES I-M is a 3-axis stabilized system vs. the older spin-scan system, providing more accurate geo-location of earth images.

METEOSATEurope's geostationary weather observation satelliteMeteosat was launched in November 1993. The 4 channel, 3-spectral-band high resolution radiometer constitutes the main payload on board Meteosat.The radiometer scans in 3 spectral bands: Visible, Infrared, and Water Vapor.The instrument allows continuous imaging of the Earth with images sent every half-hour.

SAR CharacteristicsFrequency / Wavelength 5.3GHz/C-band 5.6 cmRF Bandwidth 11.6, 17.3 or 30.0 MhzTransmitter Power (peak) 5 kWTransmitter Power (average) 300 WMaximum Data Rate 85 Mb/s (recorded) - 105 Mb/s (R/T)Antenna Size 15m x 1.5mAntenna Polarization HH

Orbit Characteristics Altitude 793-821 kilometresInclination 98.6 degreesPeriod 101 minutesAscending node 18:00 hoursSun-synchronous 14 orbits per day Coverage Access Using Maximum Swath WidthNorth of 70 degrees N DailyNorth of 48 degrees N Every 4 daysThe Whole Earth Every 6 daysRADARSAT Canadian Space Agency

18Developed and operated by the Canadian Space Agency, RADARSAT-1 was Canada's first commercial Earth observation satellite designed to survey environmental changes and to improve the management of oceans and terrestrial resources. Its mapping capabilities go well beyond previous satellite methods and today, it is one of the most advanced Earth observation satellites in orbit.RADARSAT-2 is slated for launch in 2002 and will carry an improved version of the C-band SAR found on its predecessor. This new version will have horizontal (HH), vertical (VV) and cross (HV & VH) polarization and the spatial resolution is variable from 100 m down to the finest mode of 3 m.

Japanese Satellite and Earth Observation SystemJERS-1(Japanese Earth Resources Satellite)1. Objective: Gather data on global land masses while conducting observation for land surveys, agricultural-forestry-fisheries, environmental protection, disaster prevention and coastal surveillance, with emphasis on locating natural resources.2. Operation Time : 1992 - 19983. Sensors: SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) which is an active microwave sensor OPS (Optical Sensor) that measures light reflected from the earth's surface ranging from visible light to short-wave infrared light.

ADEOS (Advanced Earth Observing Satellite)1. Goal: Monitoring global environmental changes such as maritime meteorological conditions, atmospheric ozone, and gases that promote global warming2. Operation Time : August 1996 - June 19973. Sensors: AVNIR (Advanced Visible Near Infrared Radiometer) OCTS (Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner) NSCAT (NASA Scatterometer) TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) POLDER (Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectance)

OCTS (Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner) MOS (Marine Observation Satellite MOS-1 / MOS-1b)Sheet1BandSpectral Range (mm)Ground Resolution1 (Blue).450- .515302 (Green).525- .605303 (Red).630- .690304 (Near IR).750- .900305 (Mid IR)1.55- 1.75306 (Thermal IR)10.4- 12.5607 (Mid IR)2.09- 2.3530Panchromatic.520-.90015