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    (A) defined by Western civilization:- The word civilization comes from the words in Arabic bahasab, which mudun and madain.

    It's relation with the meaningful words madana high polish or the opening of the city(B) Definition of civilization in Islam:

    - In English, it has the same meaning Civilization civilization is derived from Greek words inthe Array, the civitas which means bandar.Tamadun also be defined as a civilization.

    Permanent settlements:- The advance of civilization will select the area to build permanent settlements

    mereka.Kehidupan regularly led to a pattern of life sistematik.Pemilihan this area is veryimportant to ensure the survival of human innovation bekala makanan.Hasil also lead to progressin agriculture in terms of cultivation, storage food, animals and poultry.

    - Creation of new equipment such as hoes and use of technology as a more effectivedrainage system to practice the innovation.

    Organizational life:- Life is important because the organization is able to regulate human life and ensure the

    stability and prosperitytheir lives.

    - In the early stages of social organization or society that is born on a simple level of thefamily system.

    The more complex the division of community exists when there is increase in population anddiversity of events

    economy.- The social system or community system early civilization and pyramid-shaped pyramid and

    bersusun bersusun layer:i) King and the bangsawaan - King led the government system, which led the government

    to sit bangsawaan the top layer.ii) The glass - glass is golonagan, who dominated the affairs of religious rites, individuals

    are respected by the community as the village chief, or leader of a group, the administration andscientists, as well as those who are experts in the field of art.

    iii) Ordinary People - The third is what most people, those are important because they arethe backbone of economic activity, particularly in the areas of agriculture and trade.

    iv) The slave - - lapisaan terakhir.kehidupan take this class depends on the layers aboveit.

    System of government :- System designed to manage the administrative rule to be able to manage people morebesar.Dalam early human civilization a leader or a king with supernatural elements and claimedhimself as God's representative suipaya recognized as the leader of the government.

    .- Among the factors that cause the selection of this location are: a) where the soil around the river is suitable for agriculture.

    b) water supply facilitiesand resources.

    c) transportation andcommunication facilities.

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    b) White Nile (the start of lake Victoria in the Ugandan)- Development of Ancient Egyptian civilization began from the early settlements in Neolotik Age(10,000 BC

    5000 BC) has evolved into a center of early civilization around 3500 BC- Civilization of Ancient Egypt is divided into empet time:

    i) First Period (3100-2200 BC)ii) Middle Ages (2040-1785 BC)iii) Age of Empire (1570-1085 BC)iv) The collapse of Ages (1080-322 BC)

    - Fall of the Ancient Egyptian civilization occurred when the government controlled by foreignerssuch as Libya, Kush, Assyria, Persia, Greece and finally Rome.

    The process of formation: i) record the bronze culture during the Age of Metal.ii) Establish a permanent settlement and the use of metal.

    - Construction of the pyramid, the creation of paper from trees Papyrus, written script evolvedinto hieratik hieratik, the link text.- System of education given to children managed by home medical ibadat.Bidang thrive and

    have a high status in ancient Egyptians masyarakat.Orang maggunakan mathematics such asalgebra, geometry and astronomy to control the Nile floods that occur once in setahunl.

    Background:- It is the earliest civilization in India.juga known as the Harappan Civilization.- Located in the Indus Valley: mlembah is flowing from the Himalayan Mountains to the ArabianSea.The process of formation:

    i) Beginning with the nomadic hunting and gathering food.ii) production of agricultural products increased leading to increasing population.

    - Performance related to expertise in the field of mathematics, geometry, and construction.- Indus civilization cities planned and built in a city square and straight jaln.

    - Background:- Located in the valley of the river, the river Hwang Ho.Muncul result of soil fertility in the HwangHo, or better known as the Yellow River.- Hwang Ho River, second longest river in china, located in the northern part of the country

    China.Ia located far from the center of world civilization, the other, is setampat for having thephysical characteristics of mountainous and berpadang sand.- Formation of civilization can be detected in the homo sapien skull discovery of Peking Man, thisindicates that there is life Paleolithic era.- Construction of drainage system- Progress in the application of technology and the creation of hoe and sickle.- The writing system used by the Chinese in use to date and expand the evolution.- Introduction of the system berkelender during the Shang Dynasty.

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    - The development of thinking skills and lead to an increase tamadun.iaitu: in philosophy,education system, system of government, arts, religion, and science and technology. - Beginning with the formation of the city called "police". Setipa police are acropolis, agora, andagricultural areas.- Athens is a police terbesar.mempunyai 40,000 people only.- Setipa country town contains a market town, fortifications, temples, and istana.ia is surroundedby agricultural areas- National City has caorak government and its own laws, the people in each city-state usuallyunited.- In terms of religion, they have tuhan.Terdapat some form of government adopted by a city-stateGreeks, through various changes of the monarchy, oligarchy, aristocracy, dictatorship (tirani), andfinally democracy.- Among the scientists who were present in the civilization of Greece, namely: i) Thales

    ii) Pythagorasiii) Hippocratesiv) Archimedesv) Ptolemy

    Philosophy Greeks- The Greeks, the famous philosopher who is:

    i) * is the historian Herodotus and the philosophy of leading Greece* Given the title "Father of History"

    ii) Thucydides * Regarded as the "founder of scientific history" Using the historical approachbertereskan penulisaan

    research.iii) Socrates * is "Father of Western Philosophy"

    * Experts in the discussions on the question and answer method.

    - Township Council was established by Roman rule in every city in the second century

    Masihi.Romulus in 753 BC- Cities that there is a planned city with many amenities.- Implementing the monarchy (753 BC) is absolutely ruled Ole Etruscan kings descended.- During the reign of Julius Caesar, Roman imperial standards.- Philosophy of Rome was founded from stoik philosophy or a philosopher stoisisme Greece, theZeno.- This philosophy put justice, responsibility, courage, and humanity.- Science and technology of the Roman civilization was a member of Boethuis.Beliau matimatikbeen associated with real mathematics, geometry and astronomy.

    - To achieve the golden age between 2500-1800 years BC, but suffered because of the comingcollapse of the Aryan

    the, e, take a culture to the Indus Valley people.- The first empire in 321 BC to exist when the entire northern India was integrated during thereign of the Mauryan Dynasty- Mauryan dynasty reached its peak of glory during the reign of Asoka.- To give emphasis to the religious and the core of Hinduism.- During this period, men dominated the education, women's groups are not given education.Menumpuhkan education to learning Vedic scriptures.- Science and technology in the civilization of India is a branch of Vedic knowledge.- The knowledge of astronomy can be taken from the Rig Veda.- Knowledge of mathematics in the civilization of India expanded rapidly in the Gupta period.

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    - Member of the Indian civilization matemetik srules, like Aryabhata and Varahamihira.

    Philosophy of the Roman civilization- Founded the philosophical stoil or stoisisme Greece is a philosopher Zeno.- This philosophy put justice responsibility, courage, and humanity.

    - Chin dynasty led to the birth of the first empire in China.- Chin dynasty which founded by the Emperor Shih Huang Ti began in 221 BC and ended in 206BC- The Chinese civilization is the primary education and its main purpose is to pass the publicexaminations to fill positions in government and administration- Education in China can be divided into three stages, namely, primary, secondary, and tertiary.

    Chinese civilization, philosophy- Stressing that the case related to the human, the human relationship with another man.- The famous philosopher who is: a) Kung-fu Tze or Confucius

    b) Lao Tzec) Mo Tzu (Motze or Mencius)d) Flow Legalism

    - The development of science and technology, the most important in the creation kertas.Merekartamadun China also has the skills maghasilkan a larger boat.- Technology made paper began in 105 M.oleh Chai Lun, an official at the palace of KingChina.Beliau also succeeded in making paper by mixing raw materials such as bamboo jute andvegetables chopped and used in the pulp, spread out on a solid screen, dituskan then dried to athin sheet.

    - Among the contributions to civilization are political contributions and social contributions.- In terms of political, democratic system of government adopted civilization diman deemeddemocratic form of government

    government of the people, for example, democracy as practiced in Malaysia iaiyu demokasi

    parliamentary.- In sisitem, there are three main components:

    i) Body Government (executive power)ii) Legislative (comprising the Senate and House of Representatives)iii) Judiciary

    - The system pemerintahn republic, the Roman civilization, such as government controlled by thedu consul, seeks to balance the power.- Consul assisted by the House of Assembly Senat.Dewan represented by the people to help theSenate.- In terms of social, religion, philosophy, architecture, science and technology, language, of literature, writing system, education system, and Olympic sports.

    - Religion is an important aspect in the development and improvement of a business or refer tamadun.Agamateaching that is followed by a guide and a guide who menusia to decent living.

    - In Indian civilization, born Hindu religion followed by buddha.Mengikut Hindu god has threefunctions, namely:

    i) create (Brahman)ii) memerihara (Vishnu)iii) destroy (Siva)

    - Agama Hindu hold on the Law of Karma is associated with the behavior depends on the karmamanusia.Kelahitan "karma" a individu.tujuan life is to achieve "Moksya" means the absolute

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    freedom- Hindu golden age of 320-181 years BC has been the religion of the empire's most importantsince the time of this Maurya.Agama was dominated by the Brahmins.- In Buddhism siddharta Gautama, known by followers as the Buddha was the founder of Buddhism.- Basic teachings of Buddhism include empet noble truth that the eight-way, namely:

    i) Dukka (suffering)ii) Samudaya (for suffering)iii) Nirodha (and desire to bring misery)iv) Marga (way off lust and desire)

    - Eight way are:i) beliefs are correctii) The purpose of the rightiii) Good Speechiv) a good actv) Life is goodvi) Description of goodvii) Good Thoughtsviii) a good reflection

    - Buddhism, win glory on the reign of Asoka.Dan agana Buddha made the official religion.- Used in Pali Buddhism, the book is the Holy Tripitaka contains SuttaPitaka buddha.Kitabreligion, Vinaya and Abhidhamma Paramita Paramita.- In the early civilizations of China, appears Confucianism and Christianity Taoisme.Manakalaborn in Palestine, 610 M peda year of birth of Islam in Mecca.- Jesus Christ who came to the teachings of the founder Jeruselam Kristian.Jesus Christ wasborn on December 25 and every year

    ina on the date Christians celebrate Christmas as the heart.- The holy book of Christianity is the bible containing the Old Testament and the New Testament.- During the reign of Constantine, Christianity recognized as one of the lessons are free topractice by the community.

    - Religion of Islam revealed by Allh Almighty to Prophet Muhammad on August 6 to 17 years 610

    M.bersamaan Ramadan.Wahyu is revealed through the angel Gabriel in the Cave of Hira.- Religion of Islam started to spread after the Heart of Muhammad received his revelation AllhswtNamun opposition of the Quraysh Makkah.Baginda have migrated to Madinah on 12September this year 662 AD- There are two main thrusts of Islam, the faith and confidence throughout life syariah.Akidahreferring to the oneness of Allah swt The reference Sharia law contained in the al-Quran and al-Sunnah (Hadith) of the guidance of Muslims.- All Muslims must convinced Pillars of Faith and Pillars of Islam.Pillars of Faith* Belief in God* Belief in angels.* Belief in the scripture.* Belief in the prophets and apostles.

    * Allow to compensatory ritual and Condom.Pillars of Islam* There is no God in worship but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.* Prayer five times a day and night.* Fasting in the month of Ramadan.* Performing charity.* Performing the pilgrimage to Makkah for those who can afford it.

    - Confucius was the founder of Confucianism, who was born around 551 BC in the state of Lu(shantung). The doctrine was adopted by a belief by the Chinese and Confucius was worshiped

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    as a god of vital.- The doctrine focuses on the principles of high moral:

    i) humanity (low)ii) morality (li)iii) obedience to parents (Xiao)

    - The teachings of Taoism emerged later than the school was founded by Lao Tze Confucius.Iawho was born in the state of Chu in 604 BC- In the original Taoist philosophy of nature, but then the teachings of Taoism shapedagama.Ajaran priority

    Toa concept of meaningful way.

    - The existence of the government early as Funan, Angkor, Ayuthia, Chenla and Sukhotai hasshown the emergence of the Mainland

    in Southeast Asia.- Tmadun early in the Islands of Southeast Asia, especially in the Malay archipelago is dividedinto two, namely

    a) Malay as of old, Gangga Negara and Langkasuka.b) Islands of Indonesia as the government Mataram.Srivijaya, Majapahit, and Singhasari.

    - At the initial stage, the government earlier in Southeast Asia was heldi) diplomatic relations with the Chinese government.ii) cultural relations with Indai.

    - There are two forms of government beginning in Southeast Asia, namely:a) the government agrarianb) Maritime- The comparison between the government and the government agrarian maritime:

    - The emergence of government began with the emergence of agrarian settlements remain in thearea, especially in the fertile valley of the government sungai.Manakala maritime coastal areas,and kepilauan.- Paddy rice is the main economic activities have been undertaken mereka.Penanaman rice sincethe Neolithic.- Why - because the government early in the development of Asian tengggara:

    - Local people, the sea and the sea are a resident pegagang maritim.Ini government led to theuse of more than one language.- The concept of interdependent maritime government and the government agrarian such as:

    - Growing since the metal, starting from the third century AD, the East Asian community and hasbeen accepted and adopted some aspects of Indian culture, belief and practice animism.- The aspects such as belief and religion, the monarchy system, arts and literature.

    How the arrival of Hinduism and Buddhism.- There are four views of Hinduism and is said to Buddah Southeast Asia:

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    i) It is the view taken by the Indian Ksyatria or military, and they formed colonies in SoutheastAsia

    ii) There is also the view taken by the influence of Indian traders or Vaisya.iii) a third opinion, the Indian influence brought by the Brahmins or priests.iv) And there is the possibility of Indian influence occurs when the local community to take some

    aspects of Indian cultureinteresting.

    - The Hindu and Buddhist influence in the government system are:i) There is a government that is influenced by the early monarchy in Indiaii) first introduced the king titleiii) The concept of rebellion that explains the relationship between the king and the people

    where the people must be loyal to the king.iv) was born the concept of god-diwa the system of government beginning in Southeast Asia.v) Other custom elements menukuhkan the myth held for the There is the concept of order of the cosmos.

    - System of Angkor and the Kingdom of Srivijaya rule system: Hindu and Buddhist influence in art and literature- Among them:

    - Islamic civilization emerged in the Hijaz, a remote place in the desert heat and kering.Ia basedthinking and religious teachings.- Ignorance is beradalam Arabic, which means jahala the ignorant, not knowing or notmampunyai knowledge. Pagan community to refer community Arabia at the time of the collapseof the dam Maarib in Sabak until revelation of God to Muhammad'sAmong the Arab community because the community known as the Pre-Islamic Arabia:

    a) Not to accept the truth

    b) Not in accordance with the teachings of previous prophets and messengers such asSolomon, Abraham, Moses, Ishmael, and Jesus.- Length of Pre-Islamic period lasted from 300 AD to 610 AD 570 years Masihi.Pada Muhammadwas utterance, and in 610 AD, revealed to the Prophet Muhammad's era and the beginning of Islam.Among the reasons pre-Islamic period is considered as a time of darkness:

    a) sheer worship Allah, the Oneb) gods idolsc) Trust animismd) Having a topsy-turvy life because there is no prophet or messenger and the scripture can be

    panduaan in their kehidauapane) low character, that act cruel, arrogant and stubborn.

    1) belong to two groups of Bedouin society and community Hadari.2) Bedouin community residing in the middle of the Arabian Peninsula, the desert and inlandareas, while Hadair people living in coastal Arabian Peninsula.3) Applying immoral, gambling, adultery and drinking alcohol.4) The position of women is the lowest in masyarakat.Wanita at the time of ignorance, they willnot inherit the estate the remains of her parents mereka.Bayi newborn buried alive because thedaughter would consider degrading their families.5) Pre-Islamic Community also adopted four forms of religious belief, namely:

    i) Religious wathani (idol worship)

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    ii) Religious celestial (Christians and Jews)iii) Animism (worship of nature such as trees)iv) The belief or superstition superstitious (myth) - such as magic, fortune-teller predicted.

    6) Religious Hanif Ole religion of Allah revealed to previous prophets before the coming of Islam.Ia delivered by Abraham and Ishmael were Hunafa asPengikutnya.7) Among his followers were:

    i) Waraqah bin Naufahii) Uthman bin Huwairithiii) Abdullah bin Jahshiv) Umaiyah bin Abi Salt.

    - The table below shows the economic and social ignorance.

    1) Muhammad, meaning "commendable." His full name is Muhammad bin Abdullah bin MuttalibAbdullah.Bapa he and his mother Aminah bint Wahab.Baginda Quraish descent and are insegani by Arab tribes originating from the lineage of leaders lain.Baginda the famous Mecca , adescendant of Qusai bin Kilab but Muhammad Hasyim often referred to, which his ancestors.2) He was born on 20 April 570 to 12 Rabi M.bersamaan, Year Gajah.Nabi Muhammad was bornin the house of his grandfather Abdul Muttalib.3) which means the Temple of Mecca and Zamzam well controlled by the family of the ProphetMuhammad, he swaKeturunan wise in handling the administration of Mecca and business.4) Abdul-Muttalib, Abdul Manaf, and Hasyim is the grandfather of the Prophet Muhammad wasthe leader of Mecca self in the Age of Ignorance.

    He has four major merit is:a) Siddiq (truthful)b) trust (trusted)c) tabliq (present)d) fatanah (wise)

    - The spread of Islam is divided into two ways, namely:

    Acceptance of Islam:a) Islamic Virtueb) Policy of the Prophet Muhammad's preaching.

    - Through persuasion- To compare- Using a verse of the Qur'an

    - Shows a good example- Instill faith

    Resistance to Islam:1) The resistance factor Arabs Quraysh of Mecca are:

    i) The difference in beliefs and practices.- The teachings of Islam Allah bertauhidkan Esa.manakala Arabs Quraysh from it.

    ii) The principle of equality in the status of Islam- Where is Islam practiced the principles of equality and human status of Islamic


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    iii) The notion that one of the Prophet Muhammad's task- Due to the competition among the people of Mecca to be the leader or ruler of Mecca.

    iv) Economic Arabs Quraysh threatened- The company carved statue, because Islam forbids all idolatry.

    2) How the Arab rebellion against the Prophet Muhammad's warning:i) force

    - While he was praying gangu Arabs Quraysh of Mecca with meletakakan dirty things inhis neck

    ii) persuasion- Prophet Muhammad had offered the property, beautiful women and the Islamic da'wah

    to meningalkan.iii) a boycott

    - Warning people not doing business, not to provide assistance, and not berkawin thefamily of Muhammad

    Prophet Muhammad's problems1. He has allowed the Muslims to migrate to various parts of the Ethiopia.2. Migration to Taif to spread Islam in new places.3. Strength of the show he was not easily discouraged dserta attitude.4. Migration to Medina to continue with the Islamic da'wah and successful mendidirikan an Islamicgovernment.

    Ketokohan and integrity of the prophet Muhammad's teachings is what makes the development of Islam from Makkah to the entire Arab peninsula.

    The events that led to the agreement of the First Aqabah1. The contents of the First Treaty of Aqabah:

    a) Quarter Aus and Khazraj should believe in Allah and His Messenger.b) They promised to help the struggle of the Prophet Muhammad'sc) They promised not to do pagan practices such as drinking alcohol, stealing and killing a

    baby girl.2. First Treaty of Aqabah

    a) Mus'ab bin 'Umar an Islamic preacher who had been sent by the Prophet to Medina for the purpose of spread of Islam.

    b) bermakan Islam had spread to Madinah before the Prophet Muhammad sawdan Muslimshave arrived in the city.

    3. Strength of the show he was not easily discouraged dserta attitude.4. To continue the migration to Madinah Islamic missionary and succeeded mendidirikan anIslamic government.

    1. During the second Aqabah 622 M Agreement was signed between the tribe and Khazraj Ausbthe Prophet Muhammad's2. Contents of the agreement:

    a) Quarter Aus and Khazraj megukuhkan converted to Islam and the Prophet Muhammad'sloyalty terhadapNabi

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    b) They menjuemput Prophet Muhammad and the Muslims coming to Mecca to Medina.c) They will provide shelter and ensure his safety, and those Muslims migrated to Medina,

    Mecca time, and will defend Islam.3. Between the interests of Aqabah Second Agreement are:

    a) assure the safety and willingness to defend the people of Medina, Islam has encouragedmigration of Muslims from Mecca to Medina.

    b) To provide support and assistance to enable migration of Arabs and Muslims of MedinaMecca happen successfully.4. Migration to Medina to continue with the Islamic da'wah and successful mendidirikan an Islamicgovernment.

    1. Hijrah to Madinah Makkah Muslims occurred in a Rabi or 12 September 622 AD Migrationoccurs in secret and in stages.2. Prophet Muhammad migrated along with Abu Bakr Siddiq AI-which took about 12 hari.Umar bin al-Khattab, the more daring migrate alone and blatant.

    The concept of migration:- The Arabic word Hijrah means to move, a move that occurs from one place to another.- According to the context of Islamic civilization, migration is the migration of Muslims from the cityof Makkah to the city seeks Madinah.Ia:

    a) Strategy to spread Islam to all.b) To strengthen the position of Islam.

    - Migration also means the struggle for truth teachings of Islam, leave the evil, evil away- The views of the West orientalis give a negative interpretation of Islamic penghijrajan.

    Reason and purpose of migration.1. Revelation of God

    - With the revelation that was revealed, Allah Almighty has stated the intention and the plotto kill the Quraysh and the Prophet ordered him to immediately migrate.2. Muhammad strategy

    - In order to continue the spread of Islam, migration is a matter which it considers necessary.3. Invitation of the Arab community of Medina.

    - The Arabs of Medina, especially the tribe of Aus and Khazraj, requires leadershipberwibwa Prophet Muhammad.

    The importance of migration1. Allows the occurrence of the Islamic Da'wah.

    - Muslims will carry out a peaceful Islamic missionary and no longer hide2. Help establish the relationship of brotherhood.

    - He reconciled quarter Aus and Khazraj who often disagreed over the years.- To establish the relationship between Islam Makkah to Madinah.

    3. unite the people of Medina,- Unity among the people of Medina who are from various ethnic, religious, and cultural.

    4. Construction of Masjid al-Nabawi- As a place of worship, study, meet and discuss the problems of Muslims.

    5. Islamic calendar.- Establishing the Islamic Hijri calendar.6. Change of name of Yathrib to Madinah al-Munawwarah.

    - Conversion of making sense of the city of light.7. The importance of tolerance.8. The importance of support and sacrifice9. Highlighting the importance of the role of women to national development.10. Fortitude and greatness of the Prophet Muhammad's life11. Prophet Muhammad's wisdom12. The establishment of Islamic state in Medina

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    1. Also known as Sahifah Medina.2. Is the first written constitution enacted in the world.3. Contents developed by the prophet Muhammad in 622 AD according to the revelation of God.4. It has been designed with the consent of the Muslims (nevertheless, and the Ansar).5. The basis of the Islamic Kingdom Medina.6. Rules, the responsibility of heads of state and people.7. And has been the foundation of a sovereign nation.8. Contains 47 clauses

    i) clause 23 of the relations among Muslims and their responsibilities.ii) clause 23 is the responsibility of non-Muslims oraang including Jewish people against the

    state of Medina.9. Medina Charter provides tumpuhan to seven important aspects, namely:

    10. Between the interests of Constitution of Medina:

    1. By sending envoysa) message to the Roman, Byzantine, Persia, Egypt, Ethiopia, and in areas around the Arabian

    peninsula.b) Using diplomacy and show values

    2. By War a) only permits Muslims to fight on the following principles

    i) When the enemy attacked the Muslimsii) To find the peace that the place of worship awakeiii) against tyranny and defend themselves.

    b) Islamic Army has obtained a victory for patience and endurance high.c) Islam grew secar voluntary and tolerance, and the tidal force despite the war.d) military must comply with current guidelines are in war

    i) Not allowed to kill the poor, such as the elderly, children, the sick, women and those whosurrender.

    ii) Not allowed to kill livestock and destroy crops.iii) Do not demolish places of worship.

    e) After the battle of Badr, the Quraysh Arab people embraced Islam.

    Interest Hubaidiyah Agreement

    1. Muslims have the opportunity to perform the hajj at 629 M.2. Muslims are also free to enter Mecca, and can serve in the House at any time.3. Menbolehkan Islamic missionary program.4. Arab leaders are recruited.5. Muhammad Ketokohan

    Reopening of the city of Makkah1. City of Makkah is the birthplace of Muhammad and the birth place of Islam.2. In the year 630 M.baginda captured the city of Mecca for Arabs Quraysh violation Permit

    Agreement3. According to him, if the city of Makkah to control the government will strengthen the position

    of Medina.

    Among the factors of success of the opening of the city of Makkah:a) the Islamization of Abu Sufyan and al-Quraishi tyang Abbaskerana other Arab orabg also

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    embraced Islam.b) Taknik Muslim army attacked the city of Mecca in accordance with the principles of peace

    and it is very effective.Between the interests of the opening of the city of Makkah

    a) Paving the way for the spread of Islamb) Temple terpiliharac) City of Mecca as the holy cityd) forgiving attitude of the Prophete) create a center of Islamic rule.

    1. Islamic ruling system of government established by him in Madinah continues through systemadministration, led by the caliph after his death.2. The reign of Caliph called Ahl al-Rasyidin.Terdapat period of four prominent caliphs, namely:

    The concept of Khalifah- Search Ahl plural.- Caliph means successor of discharging the responsibility of government and administration of the previous government implemented

    the Prophet Muhammad's- While in the context of religion, it means that the successor who is responsible maintainingpurity, harmony and stability of Islam was delivered by Prophet Muhammad saw

    Conditions and how the selection of caliph:

    A Caliph must be four methods of selecting caliphsa) an independent leleki a) or Shura

    Musyawrahb) islam religion b) proposed the name

    onlyc) is just c) The selection of some of

    the candidatesd) think smarter d) Nomination by groups

    of peoplee) comply with the order of Allahf) knowledge in Islamg) prepared to carry out the punishment of Allahh) have good character

    i) gave a good and perfect body j) piety (obedience and obedience to the lawGod and abide by all prohibited).

    k) clever run the government.

    - Consultative Assembly or the Shura or consultative discussions held to reach a decision on amatter.- This process is strengthened by ritual or pronouncement sworn allegiance or baiah theappointment of a candidate as the Caliph- Baiah the oath of allegiance given to a person after he became a leader.

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    - In the process it is very important as to ensure the appointment of administrators to be accurate,highly qualified and prudent.

    Between the duties seoarang caliph

    Contribution of Ahl al-Guided Caliphs and the background

    - Children Umaiyah popular government:

    Among the contributions of both government umaiyah Children:

    First Level

    1 In polotik: 3. Islam grew rapidly.a) governance and administrative system that systematically. - Some of his

    figuresb) emphasized four aspects, namely: i) Urwah bin al-Zihat Zubary

    and Ibn al-Zuhri (Hadith)

    i) the system of Caliphate ii) Ibn Jarih(Tafsir al-Quran)

    ii) the system wazarah iii) Hasan al-Basriand Wasil ibn Ata (Usuluddin)

    iii) the system of the Secretariat 4. Health is alsodeveloping

    iv) the system hijabah i) Construction of thefirst hospital in Damascus,

    c) establishment of four departments, namely: by theCaliph al-Walid bin Adbul Malik

    i) Department of ii) Construction of leprosyhospital by Caliph

    ii) Managing the Department of General Umar

    bin abdul Aziz.iii) The Department of Correspondenceiv) Cap Mohot Government Affairs Department

    d) Military System was introduced, namely:i) military or Department of Diwanul Jundiii) land and sea forces.

    e) Also change the legislation:- Judge sentenced based on ijtihad

    according to the Qur'an, sunnah, or ijmak.2. In the social field:

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    a) The development of science.- City of Basra became the center of teaching and

    dissemination of knowledge.- To produce more scientists- Arabic the official language of the country.- Check the sound or the line was introduced in the writings of al-Quran- Book of reference for various fields of knowledge translation

    in Arabic.- Also expanding the field of chemistry and astronomy.

    Second Level

    1. Social Field- Abdul Rahman III established centers of learning - Cordova became the center of

    economic activity and tradeCordov high, and grown into an international center of learning and commerce ..

    knowledge of Europe - The main activities are:- Al-Hakim II has built a library i) making pottery and jewelry of gold- Kedua0dua this figure has built 17 learning centers and silver.

    high and 70 libraries in Andalusia ii) processing of leather goods2. Economics iii) memmbuat weapons

    - Establish Baitulmal to menaimbangkan income - while in the field of agriculture:and state spending and available from: i) construction of drainage systems that help

    nourisha) Charity ii) research to manghasilkan seed quality.b) kharaj (land tax)c) jizrah (tax perlindunga)d) usyur (tax of one tenth of the agricultural products

    secured by land yuan)e) rich (property seized by the military in

    war) Fall Children Umaiyah

    Children of the government formation Abbasiyah- Name of the government taken sempeana name al-Abbas, the uncle of the ProphetMuhammad's name.- Applying the rule based on legacy systems or systems based on the system of monarchy, adynasty ruling system.- In 1258 AD, the reign of Bani Abbasiyah government ended when the Mongols under theleadership of Hulagu Khan captured Baghdad.

    Government contribution Abbasiyah- Is a brilliant contribution utama.Penulisan and translation of foreign works into Arabic, led to thedevelopment of knowledge.

    - Baitulah is a scientific institution and a center of philosophical and scientific works of translation,especially from the language of Greece.- Business translation done from Sanskrit, Suriani and Greece who have helped in the intellectualdevelopment of the following aspects:

    i) To reform the work translated into Arabic, and the description and the improvement of thework that was translated to fit the evidence and review the value and meaning.

    ii) To preserve the heritage of knowledge of the departed to maintain the knowledge inherentin the European Dark Ages hit.

    iii) Establish a center of higher learning.- Activities developed in three stages namely:

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    i) first stage- Post ideas or speech Pierce

    ii) Second Stage- Collect ideas similar or collect Hadith Prophet Muhammad saw in a book.

    iii) The third level- Writing

    Formation of the Ottoman Turkish government.- Uthman bin Ertughrul bin Sulaiman Shah is the founder of the origin of Qayi quarter.- At first the Ottoman government was a small town located west of Anatolia.- Government Anatolia independent management and administration of its government even if their government was under the influence Saljuk.

    Contribution of the Ottoman Turkish government1. In politics:

    a) The creation of an empireb) Introduce a new legal system.c) Introducing the system of organization and administration of Islamic law.

    2. Economics:- Islamic Networking World trade, including the port over the Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea and

    the sea Mediterranien Hindi.3. Social

    a) Changing the social system with the introduction of individual excellence of each divisionmastarakat based on individual effort.

    b) Develop the knowledge, which introduced the system that affect the college education of theMuslim world.

    c) architecture is the contribution of the Ottoman government, which remains until now.

    The factors the spread of Islam to Europe1. Holding faith and high moral2. Islamic military spirit and high spirit Ghazi

    3. Military system of the Ottoman Empire with the kumpilan janissari elite group trained in the ins-outs of the war, and have a complete and modern weapons.4. Stable political situation in Europe.5. Byzantine decline and weakness of the government.6. Ottoman government policies that carry out policy based on diplomacy and tolerance.7. Islamic social policy based on individual excellence, rather than ethnicity.8. Migration of Turks into the Balkans.

    - Pertembunagan lian Islamic civilization in the world through trade and business, hunungandiplomatic, and military conquest, cultural and intellectual ..

    How to encounter

    1. Trade and business- A way of Islamic civilization clash with other civilizations in the world is through long-distancetrade.2. Military conquest and

    - Government Hilafah al-Guided Caliphs, Umaiyah Children, Children Abbasiyah, and theOttoman military expeditions were made.3. Dipomatik relations.

    - Runs dipolmatik relationship with non-Muslims.4. Cultural clash.

    - For example in Spain has emerged a new culture with the entry of Islam.

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    5. Intellectual convergence.- Occurred between the Muslims and non Muslims think.

    Effect of growth1. Religious

    - Islam brought changes to the system of life and Islam easily accepted by the followers andthe people in the occupied territories2. Politics

    - The existence of various forms of government and society in the Islamic world include:i) Government of India's Mughal Delhiii) The Muslim community in China there is even no Islamic government in China.iii) Islamic Government Umaiyah, Abbasiyah and the Ottoman central government adopted

    the system.3. Economy

    - Muslims are able to effectively control trade through the expansion of power and territory.- The center of the Islamic ekoni growing up to areas like Aden, Siraf, Basra, Alexandria and

    Istanbul.- In the West, they have established trade relations with Spain, southern France, Armenia, and

    Sharp Desert in southern Africa.and the impact they could control trade in the Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Persian Gulf,

    Indian Ocean sea Cnina Hindi and South.4. Social

    - Event of the process of urbanization and social organization in the city and surrounding areas- Muslims are also affecting the discipline of daily living such as dressing, and political


    Theory and evidence from the advent of Islam the Arabian Peninsula

    1. The advent of Islam in theory presented by Jon Crawford is a Western historian of Islam whichhe said grew in Asia Tenggera through

    commercial activities2. It can be proved through

    a) post china - whereby the Arab and Persian settlements have a business center and Cantonin China.

    b) Trade with China - Arab merchants dominated the sea trade from the port of Alexandria inEgypt to China since the early days.

    c) Stopover at the port of Malacca straits.d) The construction of settlements in Southeast Asia .- While waiting for winds of change,

    many Arab traders settled for a few bula.e) marriage with local womenf) The spread of Islam

    g) life and moral values of Islam which is in the merchant and the prosecutor Islam whichMuslims do business honestly and prudently high.h) Shih Ta Village - Muslims in the village of North Sumatra in the year 650 AD

    3. While Professor Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas also agree that Islam comes from theArabian Peninsula based on the following evidence:

    a) The equation of the literatureb) The influence of Arab culturec) the Islamization of Asia Tenggera election

    Theory and evidence of the arrival of Islam in China

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    1. Theory presented byi) Emanuel Gadinho Erediaii) SQ Fatimi

    2. Between decentralization:a) PDA around 876 AD, Muslim traders who live in Canton or Amoy crowds moved to

    Southeast Asia.b) Discovery of Terengganu Inscription in the 1899m "in the river estuary Tarsat, Kuala Berang,

    Terengganu strengthen this opinion beliau.Batu bertulisaan Jawi Inscription and dated the dayFriday 4 th day of Rajab, 702 H is equivalent to February 22 of 1303 M.

    Among the items recorded in the tablets are: * The penalty for adulterers.* Required to execute justice.* Terms and family law.* Penalty for those who do not

    pay the debt.c) Pemnemuan gravestone in 1953, the village of sand embankment, Pulau Tambun, Pekan,

    Pahang with the writing of al-Quran and the Arabic word, dated 1028 ADd) The equation of architectural elements

    Theory and evidence from India, Islam1. Theory of Islam presented by Snouck Hurgronje seoarang he Belanda.Menurut historianssince the 13th century Islam had expanded into Southeast Asia via India, the Gujarati and thecoast of Coromandel region.2. His opinion on:

    a) There is an old trade relations between India with Southeast Asia.b) The characteristics of India on the tombstone.c) There hubangan with Indian culture.

    1. Islam spread to Southeast Asia through the following ways:Trade

    a) The role of traders- The pelabihan is the main port of Malacca Strait, Gulf of Siam, Indo China and ports in the

    Spice Islands.

    - Muslim traders also made their village as a center of Islamic perbincanagn.b) the attitude of Muslim traders

    - Local people interested in the attitude of Muslim traders behavior demonstratedpraiseworthy of merit as well mannered, sincere and gentle

    c) The role of scholars- Is among the scholars who lived for several months and stayed in port in Southeast Asia to

    carry the Islamic da'wah activities.d) The relationship between the trader with a local government.e) The role syahbandar

    The Islamization of the king and the bangswan.1. In Singapore, when Megat Iskandar Shah converted to Islam, speaker, the royal family and thepeople of Melaka were converted to Islam

    2. After the conversion rja Malik al-Salih Pasai the glass is also converted to Islam memyebabkanPasia a strong Islamic state and Islam spread to the area of government business.3. This proved to the King and the speaker is playing the role and influence of citizens in thespread of Islam.

    Marriage1. Political marriages occurred between the royal family

    a) In Malacca, Sultan Mansur Shah II and Sultan Mazaffar princesses married to the King of Jambi, Riau, Riau and North Sumatera the variety Inderagiri in

    b) Princess King of Malacca was also married to the king of Pahang and Kedah

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    c) by the states later tersebaut diislamkan.2. While ordinary marriage between Muslim traders or Islamic scholars from Arab or IndianPeninsula with the locals.

    Birth of the Islamic government1. Between the Islamic government to spread Islam through the mastery of new areas are:

    a) patentb) Malaccac) Johor-Riaud) Demake) Achahf) Pattanig) Bruneih) Champa

    The role of cultural center 1. Role as

    a) knowledge center b) the center spread of Islam

    2. Samudera Pasai a translation center.3. Melaka role writing books literature4. The role of Acheh produce poetry as poetry.5. The role of the Johor-Riau Emporium is the most important center in Southeast Asia.The role of missionaries1. That those who play a direct role in the spread2. Among them are: a) Sheikh Ismail and Fakir Muhammad, the earliest missionaries inSoutheast Asia.

    b) Mahmud al-Sayyid Amir Syirazi and Tajuddin Al-Asfahani, preached atPasai

    c) Sheikh Abdul Aziz, Maulana Abu Bakar, and Maulana Yusuf-activepreachers preached in Malacca.3. The clerics in Melaka just teach the basics of Islam in the early stages of the informal spread of Islam in Malacca.4. In Acheh scholars became advisor to the king who ruled in Acheh.

    5. Wali Songo (nine saints) who preached in Java and many local community membersdiislamkan olehnya.Beliau preached by:

    i) awareness and instill the spirit of community delam on the purpose of work and work in thereal sense.

    ii) scraping to eliminate laziness masalh unemployment.iii) avoid the extravagant and wasteful kehidaupan

    Islamic privilege1. Islam has good values.

    a) The concept of God's compassion or justice Ynag.b) justice, the rights of individuals and communities.c) Living in harmonyd) Menyanjungi moral.

    e) The concept of happiness in the world and the hereafter.

    Effect of Governance and Administration1. Elimination of the concept of the gods

    - After the advent of Islam, Southeast Asian governments adopted Islamic elements in their government2. Introduction to the sultanate institution

    - Use the title of sultan nertujuan to: i) strengthen the position of the Islamic government in theEnvironmental Melayui

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    a) The spirit of worship and the sacred trust vanished.b) Dress according to the Islamic foundation that covered the head and bersongkok.

    2. Islam as a "ad-din" is a complete way of life.3. Social system changed according the standard concept of brotherhood and equality amongpeople.4. Moral values of Islam to be a guide in life.5. Mutual-aid mutual respect, a cultural cooperation.6. cleaning together and be united in the practice of village society.

    Impact on the arts1. can be seen through:

    a) calligraphy - can see the stone and wood carvingsb) Art carving - wood carving artc) Architecture - the building of mosques, domes, pulpit, sanctuary, prayer tower.

    The effect on the economy1. Introducing baitulamal that is introduced by Sultan Iskandar Muda Mahkota Alam in Acheh, andserves as national treasures.

    2. Islam encourages its followers to be: Islam prohibits its followers:a) a trade) to practice usuryb) working diligently b) suppressionc) cut c) fraudd) work hard d) begging perbuatame) seek the lawful

    1.Islam foothold in Malaya from the 13th century and 14th century.2. The presence of Islam has brought the spirit of nationalism and intellectualism that is

    meaningful to the community

    1. PengaruhIslam istitusi is particularly evident in the Sultanate and the legislature.

    Administration1. Before the advent of Islam, the Malay monarchy sisitem practice but, after the introduction of the concept of Islam and the title was diperkenalakn.2. Islamic concepts is given importance, the kings began to use the term environmental ZillulahField- and fir-ardh Zillulah which means 'the shadow of God on earth '3. He shadows the title in the land inherited from boiling the rule of government: and this title wasthe core institution menjdi king.

    a) Abbasiyah and Saljuk in Baghdad

    b) the Mamluk Mesric) in the Turkish Ottomand) Khilji and Moghul India

    4. The title used by the Sultan of Malacca, which Siltan Mahmud Shah and Sultan Abdul Ghaffur Muhyidin in Pahang.5. After the advent of Islam, Islamic figures such as Alexander began Zulkanain nasad referred toas the base of this lineage based on the name of Islam6. With the advent of Islam, the institution remains the institution of the sultanate on the pattern of inheritance and administration system based on Islam.7. Sultan di negeri-negeri Melayu dibantu oleh lapisan pembesar seperti

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    pendidikan formal melalui perantaraan institusi yang tertentu sepertisurau,masjid,madrasah,pondok atau istana.4. Kemahiran dalam pendidikan tidak normal ialah seperti pertanian, perikanan,kraf tangan ataupertukangan yang dipelajari kanak-kanak daripada ibu bapa mereka.5. Antara kaedah yang digunakan dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran pendidikan tidak normalialah :

    i) Kaedah berceritaii) Pergaulan sosialiii) Kaedah pantun, peribahasa dan teka teki.

    6. Peranan institusi dalam pendidikan formal pula :a) Rumah- iaitu mengutamakan pengajaran al-Quran,terdri daripada kanak-kanak yang

    berumur 7 himgga 15 tahunb) Istana - golongan pemerintahc) Masjid/ surau -d) Pondok - sistem pendidikan bermula di Pattani sejak abad ke 12 M.

    Bahasa dan Kesusasteraan1. Tulisan jawi

    Menjadi pengaruh kuat dan penting dalam bidang bahasa dan kesusasteraan MelayuTulisan jawi juga menjadi saluran utama untuk pembacaan dan penulisan .dan akhirnya ia menjadihak milik orang Melayu.2. Pertambahan dalam perbendaharaan kata bahasa Melayu juga berlaku.Ini disebabkan olehtambahan istilah baru yang berasal daripada bahasa Arab atau bahasa al-Quran.3. Kesusasteraan Melayu dimana pada peringkat awal disebarkan secara lisan.4. Penulisan karya berkembang setelah kedatangan Islam ke Melaka dan berbentuk prosa danpuisi.5. Perbendaharaan persatuaan Melayubertambah disebabkan terhasilnya hikayat saduranbercorak Arab-Parsi seperti Hikayat Abu Nawas dan Hikayat Hasn Damsyik

    Kesenian1. Berasal daripada perkataan seni yang bermaksud sesuatu yang indah dan menyenangkansama ada penciptanya atau penatapnya.2. keindahan kesenian merangkumi bentuk seni halus, seni rupa, seni tampak, seni

    persembahan, seni tekstil, dan busana.3. Bidang kesenian yang menampakkan pengaruh Islam adalah seperti nerikut : \

    a) Seni bina- antara binaan yang utama bagi masyarakat melayu,Binaan tersebut merupakan tempat untuk

    menunaikan solat dan juga berkumpul sosial- Ciri utama ialah mimbar ( sebuah pentas di masjid yang merupakan tempat khatib atau imam

    berkhutbah).Ciri kedua mihrab (suatu ceruk atau tonjolan di hadapan yang menunjukkanarah kiblat serta tempat untuk imam dalam solat jemaah)

    b) Seni ukiran- Iaitu merangkumi hiasan dalaman di kesemua ninaan sama ada masjid,rumah atau istana- Sebelum kedatangan islam motif berdasarkan binatang,namun apabila kedatangan Islam

    motif tumbuh-tumbuhan,bunga-bungaan dan geometri yang berunsurkan Islam.

    c) Kesenian epigrafi- Yang terdapat pada batu bersurat dan batu nisan yang turut berkembang,ia dapat dilihat

    pada Batu Bersurat Terengganu,terutamanya dari segi tulisan.d) Seni khat/kaligrafi- Iaitu seni tulisan dalam Islam yang digunakan sebagai hiasan masjid, madrasah, batu nisan,

    barang tenbikar,pakian, mata wang.- Tulisan khat jenis kufi yang berbentuk lurus dan menegak berasal dari Kufah,Iraq.Manakala

    tulisan khat jenis nasakh yang berbentuk melengkung dan geometri muncul di Baghdad

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    pada abad ke 11.e) Seni persembahan- Ynag meliputi bidang tarian, drama, muzik nyanyian dan wayang kulit.- Berdasarkan ajaran agama dan juga pengaruh dari Asia Barat dalam seni persembahan.

    Seni dikir - Seni kata lagu yang bercampur baur antara bahasa Melayu dengan Bahasa Arabmemperlihatkan pengaruh Islam,Dinyanyikan dengan iringan pukulan rebana dankompangSeni ghazal - Berkembang di Johor.Merupakan sejenis puisi Arab yng memuji-muji kebesaranIslam.Gaya Hidup masyarakat1. Perubahan dalam golongan pemerintahan.

    a) Amalan protokol(hijabah) yang dijalankan dalam kalangan pemerintah menggambarkanpengaruh Bani Umaiyah.

    b) Adat perlantikan dan pertabalan raja dengan adat seperti lafaz ikrar oleh sultan danpembesar.

    c) Selepas kemangkatan sultan,perlantikan pengganti akan dilakukan sebelum upacarapemakaman sultan dilangsungkan,yang dimulakan oleh para khalifah pada zaman BaniUmaiyah2. Perubahan dalam masyarakat melayu.

    a) Hubungan menjadi erat dan menjadi kepentingan antara ahli keluarga dan sesamaindividu.Idu bapa dan orang yang lebih tua mesti di hormati

    - Memanggil yang lebih tua dengan gelaran seperti pak long,mak long,pak ngah,mak ngahatau pak lang.

    b) Adat berziarah menjadi amalan kepada oarang melayu dan bersalaman- Bismillah yang bermakna dengan nama Allah mestilah dibaca semasa hendak makan.

    c) Majlis-majlis seperti majlis perkawinan,majlis berkhatam (majlis tamat membaca al-Quran)berlangsung mengikut cara Islam.

    1.Perkembangan perdagangan- Pedagang Islam telah menguasai perdagangan di Lautan Hindi dan laut China Selatan dariabad ke -12 hingga abad ke-18.- Pedagang Melayu terlibat secara aktif dalam kegiatan perdagangan Timur dan Barat sejajar

    dengan saranan Islam.- Dengan adanya 84 bahasa yang dipertuturkan perkembangan perdagangan di Melaka yangmerupakan pusat perdagangan yang terpenting pada abad ke-15.

    a) Sebab perkembangan melaka ialahi) kedudukan yang strategikii) Kehadiran pedagangiii) kemudahan pelabuhaniv) Pentadbiran pelabuhan yang licinv) Pelbagai barang dagangan seperti rempah ratus

    b) Jawatan juga telah diwujudkan oleh kerajaan Melakai) Jawatan Laksamana untuk menjaga urusan kelautanii) Jawatan Syahbandar untuk bertindak sebagai ketua pelabuhan.

    c) Turut diperkenalkan sistem sukat timbang dimana Syahbandar yang dipertanggungjawab.

    Sistem sukat timbang seperti berikut : - Kaedah urusan perdagangan yang digunakan di Melaka ialah kaedah pertukaran

    barang(sistem barter) dan kaedah jual beli.- Selepas Melaka jatuh ke tangan Portugis kerajaan Johor telah meneruskan perdagangan- Pada abad ke-17 dan ke 18 kerajaan Johor telah menjadi pesat dan tunjang kekuasaan

    melayu.- Selain Johor,negeri-negeri Melayu lain seperti Kedah, Terengganu dan Kelantan juga

    muncul sebagai pusat perdagangan yang penting pada zaman sama.

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    2.Penggunaan mata wang- Digunakan untuk memudahkan urusan perdagangan dan jual beli kerana bertindak sebagai

    perantaraan nilai baranagan.i.Melaka

    - Mata wang bebentuk bulat dan beratnya ialah satu kati lapan tahil.- Tercatat nama sultan yang memerintah serta tarikh menikut Islam.- Di perlabuhan Melaka,mata wang dari pasai, Hormuz, dan Camby jugu turut di gunakan,juga

    boleh ditukar dengan mata wang tempatan.ii. Johor

    - Mata wang timah yang di panggil katun yang berbentuk bulat atau segi enam.Mata wangemas di Johor juga di beri gelaran kupang.dan mengandungi emas seberat 10grain(bersamaan dengan 0.65 gram) dan juga jenis emas yang mempunyai berat 40 grain(bersamaan dengan 2.6 gram.

    - Pada setiap mata wang,terteranama dan pangkat yang memerintah dan yang mengeluarkanmata wang tersebut.

    - Di Johot,mata wang tidak mempunyai tarikh tetapi mempunyai tulisan jawi atau Arab sepertiMalik atau Sultan al-Adil. dan digunakan secara meluas pada abad yang ke-16.

    - 1527 adalah tarikh mata wang yang tertua iaitu semasa pemerintahan Sultan Alauddin RiayatSyah.iii. Kedah.

    - contoh mata wang kedah :

    - Kedah telah mengeluarkan mata wang timah sejak abad ke 17 lagi untuk kegunaan sendiri.- Mta wang Kedah berbentuk ayam jantan yang hinggap di atas beberapa cincin.- Boleh di patahkan dan digunakan secara berasingan- Mata wang emas digunakan secara meluas pada abad ke 16.

    iv. Kelantan.- Mata wang dikenali sebagai kijang.Ini kerana terdapat gambar kijang pada muka wang emas


    3.Percukaian1. Cukai ialah bayaran yang dikenakan oleh pihak pemerintah terhadap kegiatan atau barangantertentu.Sisitem percukaian wtelah wujud seiring dengan kegiatan perdagangan.

    2. Ia merupakan sumber pendapatan kerajaan yang akan disalurkan semua untuk pembangunannegara.3. Sistem percukaian di Melaka wajib dikenakan kepada pedagang yang hendak berurusniaga di

    mana pedagang mestilah menjelaskan cukai sebelum menjalankan perniagaan dipondok di sepanjang sungai Melaka.Antara cukai yang dikenakan ialah :

    i) Cukai tetap - merupakan cukai yang paling asas- Juga dikenali sebagai cukai import.- Jumlahnya di tetapkan oleh pemerintah- Cukai dikenakan sebanyak 6% keatas jumlah barangan yang dibawa oleh

    pedagang dari Pegu,Siam,India,Ceylon,dan Tabh Arab.- Manakala cukai sebanyak 5% dikenakan ke atas pedagang dari China dan

    Jepun.ii) Cukai diraja - 3% dikenakan ke atas orang asing yang datang dari Kepulauan Melayu.

    - 5% dikenakan ke atas orang asing lain.iii) Cukai lain - Dikenakan kepada orang asing yang mmenetap di Melaka.iv) Beras dan makanan tidak dikenakan cukai.

    4. Amalan riba iaitu faedah atau pertambahan bayaran dalam urusan perjanjian hutang piutangtidak dibenarkan dalam perniagaan di kalangan Islam.5. Golongan pemerintah telah menekankan kepada golongan kaya untuk membayar zakat haratmemandangkan ekonomi yang pesat.

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    1. Zaman pertengahan terbahagi kepada 3 peringkat iaitu :a) Peringkat awal (476 M. - 1050 M.)b) Peringkat kemuncak (1050 - 1300 M.)c) Peringkat akhir (1300 - 1450 M.)

    Ciri-ciri Zaman Gelap1. Pentadbiran pusat yang lemah dan tidak berkesan :2. Gereja Katolik yang terlalu berkuasa hanya menunpuhkan kepada kegiatan amalan agamadan pembelajaran ilmu keakhiratan sahaja.3. Kemerosotan ekonomi diman serangan orang gasar yang mengganggu perdagangan di pantaiutara dan barat Eropah..Orang Eropah juga tida dapat datang ke Timur Jauh keranaorang Islam telah menguasai kawasan tersebut.Juga penumpuhan pada pertanian sara diri4. Kemerosotan perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan.

    Zaman Kemuncak Pertengahan- Merupakan Zaman Peralihan dari Zaman Gelap ke Zaman Renaissance.

    Ciri-ciri Zaman Kemuncak Pertengahan1. Perubahan peranan memainkan peranan sebagai - institusi yang universal

    - ejen penyatuan.2. Perubahan ekonomi di sebabkan :

    i) Pertambahan pendudukii) Peningkatan kegiatan pertanianiii) Kemunculan perdagangan

    3. Perubahan sosiala) Kelas pertengahan yang terdiri daripada artisan, pedagang, dan ahli perbankan.b) Kedudukan sosial seseorang tidak berasaskan kepada pemilihan tanah,tetapi kekayaan

    yang dimilikinya.

    4. Perubahan Politika) Penglihatan rakyat dalam kegiatan atau urusan politik.b) Institusi parlimen telah diwujudkan untuk membantu memenuhi tuntutan rakyat

    Zaman Renaissance1. Pada Zaman Renaissance,kegemilangan tamadun bangkit semula.Istilah Renaissance berasaldaripada perkataan itali iaitu ; "reniscimentt yang bermakna " kelahiran semula".2. Ia cuba menonjolkan keupayaan manusia menggunakan fikiran untuk mencari penyelesaiankepada pemasalahannya.Aliran pemikiran ini dikenali sebagai humanisme.3. Zaman Renaissance bermula di Itali pada abad ke-14 dan seterusnya berkembang ke EropahBarat sehingga abad ke-174. Sebab-sebab Zaman Renaissance bermula di Itali :

    a) Kedudukan strategik itali

    b) Kemunculan bandar-bandar pentingc) Kemunculan golongan pedagang kayad) Peranan Paus di Rom

    5.Kemunculan individualisme iaitu pada zaman pertengahan, golongan pelukis dan pengukir bekerja secara berkumpulan6.Perubahan konsep pendidikan

    Kesan Zaman Renaissance1. Politik - Kemunculan monarki baru2.Ekonomi - Sistem perdagangan tempatan antarabangsa semakin maju dan meluas.

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    3. Sosial - Perubahan dakam pemikiran dan gaya hidup manusia dan perubahan dalam sikapmasyarakat terhadap pendidikan.

    Gerakan Reformation1.Antara sebab utama kemunculan Gerakan Reformation ialah :

    a) Kepincangan dan penyelewengan gereja Katolikb) Penjualan sijil Indulgences satu penyeleweng yang dilakukan oleh Gereja Katolik.

    Permulaan Reformation1. Penentangan terhadap kewibawaan Gereja Katolik

    - Pada tahun 1517,Martin Luther seorang profesor ilmu teologi di jerman telah menentangamalan Indulgences. Kedudukan gereja dan institusi paderi tercabar akibat pendirianLuther.2. Gerakan pertahankan kewibawaan gereja Katolik

    - Masyarakat mangadakan Counter Reformation, iaitu gerakan yang menahan atau bertindakmenentang sesuatu yang baru.

    Kesan-kesan Zaman Reformation1. Perpecahan agama dan peperangan terbahagi kepada 2 mazhad iaitu, Katolik dan Protestan.

    - Peperangan keagamaan yang meletus di Eropah ialahi) Peperangan keagamaan di Perancis yang berlaku dari tahun 1562 - 1598ii) Perang 30 tahun di antara Sweden, Jerman, Denmark, Sepanyol dan Bohemia yang

    berlaku antara tahun 1618 - 1648.2. Wujud sikap toleransi antara pelbagai mazhad.3. Kemerosotan kuasa golongan gereja.

    Sebab-sebab penjelajahan1. Desakan ekonomi2. Galakan dari pemerintah.3. Semangat keagamaan4. Galakan monarki baru

    5. Semangat kebangsaan bangsa

    Antara kesan- kesannya1. Politik - Kemerosotan kuasa pemerintah2.Ekonomi - Penguasaan laluan perdagangan oleh Barat3. Sosial - pengaruh terhadap gaya hidup

    - kelahiran masyarakat baru- penyebaran agama Kristian- peneksploitasian buruh tempatan

    1. Revolusi bermaksud suatu perubahan besar yang berlaku secara mendadak dan menyeluruhsama ada dalam bidang politik,sosial atau ekonomi.

    2. Contoh- contoh revolusi politik adalah :(a) Revolusi Perancis (1789) - Perubahan daripada sistem monarki kepada demokrasiborjuis.

    (b) Revolusi China (1911) - Perubahan daripada sistem monarki kepada sistem republik.(c) Revolusi Rusia (1917) - Perubahan daripada sistem monarki kepada sistem komunis(d) Revolusi Indonesia (1949) - Perubahan daripada sistem kolonail kepada sistem

    peribumi.3. Sumbangan Revolusi Pertanian terhadap perkembangan Revolusi Perindustrian

    a)Perkembangan bidang pertanian- Sebelum berlaku Revolusi Pertanian,pengeluaran makanan dijalankan dalam skala

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    yang kecil.4. Pemilikan tanah persendirian

    a) sistem pemilikan tanah persendirianb) sistem pemilikan tanah awan.

    5. Kaedah dan ciptaan baru bagi dalam pertanian- Penggunakan kaedah atau teknik saintifik

    i) cara penanaman yang lebih berkesanii) penggunaan bajaiii) penggunaan peralatan moden.

    6. Pertanian komersial- Penggunaan baja asli secara meluas

    Perkembangan bidang perindustrian1. Faktor yang mencetuskan Revolusi Perindustrian.

    a) Sumbangan Revolusi Pertaniaan dagi segi- Penyediaan modal- penydiaan bahan makanan

    b) Ciptaan baru dalam bidang sains dan teknologi serta semangat keusahawaan2. Peralihan daripada industri desa kepada perkilangan

    * Revolusi Perindustrian membawa perubahan dalam:- Teknik pengeluaran- skala pengeluaran- aktiviti mengkomersialkan hasil barangan.

    3. Penggunaan teknologi* Peralatan dikendalikan dengan menggunakan tenaga manusia, binatang atau air.

    * Semasa Revolusi Perindustrian, perubahan yang berlaku termasuk "a) Peningkatan perdagangan antarabangsab) Kemajuan dalam bidang pengangkutanc) Kemunculan golongan buruh dan majikand) Perkembangan Eropah sebagai kuasa yang kuat dan kaya.

    1. Pertanian sebagai punca ekonomi

    - Revolusi Pertanian talah membantu perkembangan perindustrian denhan menyediakan :a) bahan makanan yang cukupb) tenaga buruh yang banyak

    2. Perindustrian sabagai punca ekonomi baru- Kegiatan partanian telah digantikan oleh kagiatan pambuatan dan pangilangan sebagai

    bidang utama ekonomi negara.3. Peningkatan perdagangan antarabangsa

    - Lebihan produk yang dihasilkan semasa Revolusi Pertanian dan Revolusi Perindustriandipasarkan di peringkat antarabangsa.4. Kemajuan bidang pengangkuatan

    - Sistem pengangkutan domestik diperlihatkan apabila kereta api dicipta.- Rekaan enjin berkuasa wap- Pengangkutan laut.

    5. Kemunculan golongan buruh dan majikan.a) Beberapa akta ubaru telah diluluskan oleh kerajaan untuk membela nasib para pekerjakilang :

    b) Antara aktanya :i) Akta Kilang

    Digubal pada tahun 1833.Melarang kanak-kanak di bawah umur 9 tahun berkerja dan mesti dihantar ke sekolah.Had masa berkerja tidak boleh melebihi 9 jam sehari bagi kanak-kanak yang layak berkerja.Keselamatan para pekerja mereka di kilang adalah tanggungjawab para majikan.

    ii) Akta Lombong

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    Digubal pada tahun 1842Kanak-kanak perempuan dan wanita dilarang berkerja dalam perusahaan arang batu

    iii) Akta Sepuluh JamDigubal pada tahun 1847.Pekerja wanita yang terlibat dalam perusahaan tekstil dilarang bekerja lebih daripada sepuluh

    jam sehari

    1. Foktor-faktor yang mendorong kedatangan kuasa-kuasa Barat ke Asia.