PENGELOLAAN BIODIVERSITAS AGROEKOSISTEM

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PENGELOLAAN BIODIVERSITAS AGROEKOSISTEM. Mk. Manajemen Agroekosistem. Disajikan : soemarno jurs tanah fpub des 2013. Kawasan lereng G. Mahawu. Ekosistem Hutan. Agroekosistem Talun. Agroekosistem sawah. Agroekosistem Tegalan. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of PENGELOLAAN BIODIVERSITAS AGROEKOSISTEM

Bab 8. DIVERSITAS DAN STABILITAS AGROEKOSISTEM

PENGELOLAAN BIODIVERSITAS AGROEKOSISTEM Disajikan : soemarno jurs tanah fpub des 2013Mk. Manajemen AgroekosistemKawasan lereng G. Mahawu

Agroekosistem sawahAgroekosistem TegalanAgroekosistem TalunEkosistem HutanDiunduh dari: http://agbiodiversity.com/AgBiodviersityProject/Howbiodiversitysupportsfarmprofits/tabid/133/Default.aspx....... 8/12/2012BIODIVERSITAS.

Biodiversity, Agriculture & EcosystemsWhat is BiodiversityAgrobiodiversityBiodiversity and Agriculture in the landscape extensification and intensificationBiodiversity and Ecosystem ServicesAgriculture and Ecosystem ServicesDiunduh dari: www.unep.ch/.../WCMC_Biodiv_Intro_v2.pp... ....... 8/12/2012DEFINITIONS OF BIODIVERSITYThe variability among living organisms and the ecological complexes of which they are part, including the diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.

Diunduh dari: www.unep.ch/.../WCMC_Biodiv_Intro_v2.pp... ....... 8/12/2012Reed Noss, "Indicators for Monitoring Biodiversity: A Hierarchial Approach", Conservation Biology 4(4):355-364. 1990.

Diunduh dari: www.unep.ch/.../WCMC_Biodiv_Intro_v2.pp... ....... 8/12/2012Agrobiodiversity and SugarcaneCultivated / planned biodiversitysugarcaneAssociated biodiversitysoil micro-organisms (mineral cycling, pest control, pollination, soil formation and structure?)Additional / other biodiversitysnakes, birds, insects, rodents,..Wild biodiversity outside agricultural ecosystemsDiunduh dari: www.unep.ch/.../WCMC_Biodiv_Intro_v2.pp... ....... 8/12/2012

Diunduh dari: www.unep.ch/.../WCMC_Biodiv_Intro_v2.pp... ....... 8/12/2012

Aneka spesies tumbuhan bawah dan penutup tanah dijumpai di kebun kakao.

Sumber: http://ww3.hdnux.com/photos/07/54/74/2019114/3/628x471.jpg Agrobiodiversity and CacaoCultivated / planned biodiversityCacao, fruits?, timber?, medicines?, other NTFPsAssociated biodiversityPollinating insects?soil micro-organisms Shade trees(mineral cycling, pest control, soil formation and structure?)Additional / other biodiversityPlants, trees, fungi, reptiles, amphibians, birds, insects, mammals,..Wild biodiversity outside agricultural ecosystemsDiunduh dari: www.unep.ch/.../WCMC_Biodiv_Intro_v2.pp... ....... 8/12/2012Agrobiodiversity and staple crops in PNG (potato, taro, yams)Cultivated / planned biodiversityPotato, taro, yamsAssociated biodiversitysoil micro-organisms (plants, insects & decomposers in fallow vegetation?)(mineral cycling, pest control, soil formation and structure?)Additional / other biodiversityPlants, trees, fungi, reptiles, amphibians, birds, insects, mammals,..Wild biodiversity outside agricultural ecosystemsDiunduh dari: www.unep.ch/.../WCMC_Biodiv_Intro_v2.pp... ....... 8/12/2012

Diunduh dari: www.unep.ch/.../WCMC_Biodiv_Intro_v2.pp... ....... 8/12/2012

MangroveID - Delta Mahakam, Pertambakan udang di kawasan Delta Mahakam umumnya dibangun secara ekstensif tradisional dengan luas lahan petakan tambak diatas 5 ha. Hal ini tidak saja dapat merusak hutan mangrove dalam areal yang sangat luas, akan tetapi juga dalam kondisi terbuka seperti itu akan berdampak terhadap perubahan kondisi lingkungan misalnya perubahan kualitas air tambak. Diunduh dari: http://mangroverindonesia.blogspot.com/2011/08/tambak-silvofishery-di-handil-8-kawasan.html ....... 12/12/2012Diunduh dari: biodiversitas agroekosistem lahan sawah di di musim kemarau, smno juli 2011

Lahan tebu Lahan tomatLahan jagungMillennium Ecosystem Assessment:Focus on Ecosystem Services The benefits people obtain from ecosystems

Diunduh dari: www.unep.ch/.../WCMC_Biodiv_Intro_v2.pp... ....... 8/12/2012Focus: Consequences of Ecosystem Change for Human Well-being

Diunduh dari: www.unep.ch/.../WCMC_Biodiv_Intro_v2.pp... ....... 8/12/2012

MA Conceptual FrameworkDirect DriversIndirect DriversEcosystemServicesHuman Well-beingDirect Drivers of ChangeChanges in land use Species introduction or removalTechnology adaptation and useExternal inputs (e.g., irrigation) Resource consumptionClimate changeNatural physical and biological drivers (e.g., volcanoes)

Indirect Drivers of ChangeDemographicEconomic (globalization, trade, market and policy framework)Sociopolitical (governance and institutional framework)Science and TechnologyCultural and ReligiousHuman Well-being and Poverty ReductionBasic material for a good lifeHealthGood Social RelationsSecurityFreedom of choice and action

Diunduh dari: www.unep.ch/.../WCMC_Biodiv_Intro_v2.pp... ....... 8/12/2012

Sustainable Use of Agricultural Biodiversity:

An essential aspect of natural resources management in agricultural ecosystems

Diunduh dari: www.cbd.int/doc/programmes/.../fao-01.ppt- ....... 8/12/201216What is agricultural biodiversity?It includes all components of biological diversity of relevance to food and agriculture:the variety and variability of plants, animals and micro-organisms at genetic, species and ecosystem level which are necessary to sustain key functions in the agro-ecosystem, its structures and processes.

Local knowledge and cultural diversity can be considered an essential part of agrobiodiversity as it is the human activity of agriculture which conserves this biodiversity.Diunduh dari: www.cbd.int/doc/programmes/.../fao-01.ppt- ....... 8/12/201217Importance (value) of biodiversity in agricultural ecosystemsIn agricultural systems biodiversity is important for the production of food, fibre, fuel, fodder...(goods) to conserve the ecological foundations to sustain life (life support function) to allow adaptation to changing situations and to sustain rural peoples livelihoods (sustainable agriculture food security, income, employment,...)

Specificity: it has been developed through human intervention over generations and it requires human management to sustain it.Diunduh dari: www.cbd.int/doc/programmes/.../fao-01.ppt- ....... 8/12/201218Agricultural Biodiversity is complexECOSYSTEMS DIVERSITY varied production systems habitats and landscapesHuman Management practices and decisionsCrop based systems: food/fibre crops, pasture, trees (planned + harvested spp.) Mixed systems and associated biodiversity: soil organisms, pollinators, predatorsLivestock based systems: pasture, rangelands, cattle, small ruminants, poultry...GENETIC and SPECIES DIVERSITYwild and domesticatedCULTURAL DIVERSITYCase studies and experiences to be shared among countries and farming systemsDiunduh dari: www.cbd.int/doc/programmes/.../fao-01.ppt- ....... 8/12/201219Need to address all components of agrobiodiversityHabitat diversity (mosaic of land uses varies with soil and terrain, hedges, borders, trees in the landscape; farm type)

Inter-species diversity (plant, animal and microbial)

Inter-species diversity (very important for agrobiodiversity) genetic resources, unique traits resistance to drought, cold, disease, etc, rooting, aspect, taste, storage, etc.

Harvested species and Associated species (pollinators, beneficial/harmful predators, soil organisms health/ disease,)

as well as Cultural diversity (type of farmer and farm; regulations; common property resources/ownership)

and to understand implication of agrobiodiversity on ecosystem functions/processes and the services provided (see adapted Table by J. Paruel, Environmental controls and effect of land use on ecosystem functioning in temperate Argentina) Diunduh dari: www.cbd.int/doc/programmes/.../fao-01.ppt- ....... 8/12/201220ENHANCEMENTSPollinatorsPredatorsand ParasitesHerbivoresNon-cropVegetationEarthwormsSoilMesofaunaSoilMicrofaunaPollinationGeneticintrogressionPopulationregulationBiologicalcontrolBiomassconsumptionNutrientcyclingCompetitionAllelopathySources of naturalenemies Crop wildrelativesSoil structureNutrientcyclingDecompositionPredationNutrient cyclingNutrientcyclingDiseasesuppressionAGROECOSYSTEMBIODIVERSITYFUNCTIONSCOMPONENTSFrom Altieri, M.A. Biodiversity and pest management Agro-ecosystems, Haworth Press, New York, 1994) MANAGING AGRO-ECOSYSTEM BIODIVERSITYIntercroppingRotationsNo-TillageGreen manuresWindbreaksAgroforestryCover cropsCompostingOM inputsDiunduh dari: www.cbd.int/doc/programmes/.../fao-01.ppt- ....... 8/12/201221Agricultural biodiversity comprises a wide variety of components .. The two following case studies will concentrate on soil and pollinators

Next slide on soil biodiversity- case study from Burkina FasoECOSYSTEM SERVICES: FUNCTIONS (biodiversity related examples)Food production The portion of gross primary production extractable as raw food. or for processing for food (Game, crops, nuts, fruits by hunting, gathering, subsistence or commercial farming)Raw materials The portion of gross primary production extractable as raw material (Production of wood, energy/fuel, fodder, ..)Genetic resources Sources of unique biological materials and products. (Plant varieties, animal races, medicinal extracts, products for materials science, genes for resistance to plant pathogens/crop pests, ornamental species, pets, Climate and Gas Regulation: of global temperature, precipitation, other biologically mediated climatic processes at global/local levels (GHG); of atmospheric chemical composition (CO2/O2 balance, C sequestration, CO3 for UVB protection)Resilience/Disturbance Regulation: ecosystem response to environmental fluctuation, mainly controlled by vegetation structure (storm protection, flood control, drought recovery, other aspects of habitat response).Water Regulation and Supply: of hydrological flow/regimes; water retention, storage, provisioning in the watershed: (Infiltration, soil water retention determined by vegetation cover/structure; water supply in aquifers, surface water bodies; availability for consumption, irrigated agricu