Pengantar Tata Kelola Internet (Diplo)

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Transcript of Pengantar Tata Kelola Internet (Diplo)

  • 1. SEBUAH PENGANTAR TENTANG TATA KELOLA INTERNET Jovan Kurbalija

2. Malta: 4th Floor, Regional Building Regional Rd. Msida, MSD 13, Malta Swiss: DiploFoundation Rue de Lausanne 56 CH-1202 Genve 21, Switzerland Surat Elektronik: diplo@diplomacy.edu Situs: http://www.diplomacy.edu Sampul: the Argument by Design Penyunting: Mary Murphy Illustrasi: Zoran Marcetic Marca & Vladimir Veljaevic Tata Letak & Pracetak: the Argument by Design Percetakan: Akaprint Nyomdaipari Kft Kecuali dinyatakan berbeda, karya ini berada di bawah lisensi http://creativecommons.org/licences/by-nc-nd/3.0/ Buku ini sebaiknya diterjemahkan dan diterbitkan ke dalam bahasa lain. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, silakan hubungi diplo@diplomacy.edu Acuan apapun terhadap produk tertentu dalam buku ini bertujuan semata-mata untuk memberikan contoh dan tidak dapat dianggap sebagai bentuk dukungan atau rekomendasi terhadap produk tersebut. Alamat situs internet yang terdapat di buku ini akurat per tanggal 6 Agustus 2010. Buku ini diproduksi berkat dukungan finansial dari Uni Eropa dan isi buku ini sepenuhnya menjadi tanggung jawab DiploFoundation dan tidak dapat dianggap dalam situasi apapun sebagai posisi yang diambil oleh Uni Eropa. Alih Bahasa Indonesia Oleh Penterjemah : Andreas Adianto dan Swastika Nohara Penerbit : APJII-www.apjii.or.id Tata Letak Dan Pencetak : CV.Goentoer Printing Edisi Ke IV Bahasa Inggris Edisi Ke I Bahasa Indonesia Buku ini dicetak kembali dalam Bahasa Indonesia berkat dukungan finansial dari APJII dan pihak-pihak terkait. Isi buku ini sepenuhnya tanggungjawab Diplo dan APJII APJII 3. Daftar Isi Kata Pengantar............................................................................................................................................ 1 Bab 1: Pendahuluan........................................................................................................ 7 Apa yang Dimaksud dengan Tata Kelola Internet?..................................................................................... 7 Evolusi Tata Kelola Internet........................................................................................................................ 9 Perangkat Kognitif Tata Kelola Internet ................................................................................................. 15 Berbagai Pendekatan dan Pola.................................................................................................................. 17 Prinsip-Prinsip Panduan........................................................................................................................... 22 Analogi...................................................................................................................................................... 26 Klasifikasi Isu-isu Tata Kelola Internet...................................................................................................... 31 Masih dalam Perbaikan: Apakah Kita Membangun Menara Babel Abad Ke-20?.................................... 33 Bab 2: Keranjang Infrastruktur dan Standardisasi.................................................... 39 Infrastruktur Telekomunikasi.................................................................................................................... 40 Protokol Pengendalian Transport/Protokol Internet [TCP/IP]................................................................ 41 Sistem Nama Domain [Domain Name System [DNS] ........................................................................... 45 Server Root [Root Servers]....................................................................................................................... 49 Netralitas Jaringan..................................................................................................................................... 52 Penyedia Jasa Internet [Internet Service Providers/ISP]........................................................................... 61 Penyedia Jasa Internet Pita Lebar [Internet Bandwidth Providers/IBP]................................................... 62 Model Ekonomi Dari Konektivitas Internet ............................................................................................ 64 Standard Web............................................................................................................................................ 67 Sistem Awan Komputasi [Cloud Computing] ......................................................................................... 68 Konvergensi: Internet-Telekomunikasi-Multimedia................................................................................. 70 Keamanan Dunia-Maya [Cyber Security]................................................................................................ 72 Enkripsi..................................................................................................................................................... 76 Spam......................................................................................................................................................... 78 Bab 3: Keranjang Hukum........................................................................................... 85 Instrumen Hukum.................................................................................................................................... 85 Yurisdiksi................................................................................................................................................... 91 Arbitrase.................................................................................................................................................... 94 Hak Cipta.................................................................................................................................................. 96 Merek Dagang......................................................................................................................................... 102 Paten........................................................................................................................................................ 103 Kejahatan Dunia-Maya [Cyber Crime].................................................................................................. 103 Undang-Undang Tenaga Kerja................................................................................................................ 105 Bab 4: Keranjang Ekonomi....................................................................................... 111 Definisi Perdagangan Elektronik [E-Commerce]................................................................................... 111 Perlindungan Konsumen......................................................................................................................... 115 Pajak........................................................................................................................................................ 116 Tanda Tangan Digital.............................................................................................................................. 118 Pembayaran Elektronik: Perbankan Elektronik dan Uang Elektronik.................................................... 120 4. Bab 5: Keranjang Pembangunan............................................................................. 129 Kesenjangan Digital ............................................................................................................................... 131 Akses Universal ...................................................................................................................................... 132 Strategi Mengatasi Kesenjangan Digital ................................................................................................ 132 Bab 6: Keranjang Sosial Budaya .............................................................................. 141 Hak Asasi Manusia ................................................................................................................................ 141 Kebijakan Konten.................................................................................................................................... 144 Privasi dan Perlindungan Data................................................................................................................ 149 Keberagaman Bahasa dan Budaya........................................................................................................... 154 Barang Global Milik Publik ................................................................................................................... 155 Hak-Hak Penyandang Cacat................................................................................................................... 157 Pendidikan............................................................................................................................................... 158 Keselamatan Anak di Ranah Maya......................................................................................................... 160 Bab 7: Para Pemangku Kepentingan Tata Kelola Internet......................................... 169 Pemerintah.............................................................................................................................................. 171 Sektor Bisnis .......................................................................................................................................... 176 Masyarakat Sipil...................................................................................................................................... 178 Organisasi-Organisasi International ...................................................................................................... 179 Komunitas Internet.............................................................................