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    BnR-Peng.Manajemen-Chap-10 1

    Importance of Control Function

    on Management

    Dr. Bagus Nurcahyo

    Program Studi Manajemen PemasaranDirektorat Program D3 Bisnis & Kewirausahaan

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    Critical link back to planning

    No control often sidetracks a good plan

    Facilitates goal achievement

    Are objectives being met? If not, WHYnot?

    Makes delegation easier/better

    Provides feedback on performance of delegatedauthority

    Opportunity for delegation over-ride

    Trust, but verifyportion of management

    Importance of Control

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    Feedforward Control Prevents anticipated problems

    Built in at the start (or before)

    Concurrent Control

    Occurs while activity in progress Ensures standards being met; Correct before they

    become too costly

    Often built into new technology

    Feedback Control Control after action has occurred

    Good feedback on effectiveness of planning

    Most popular Easiest???

    Three Basic Types of Control

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    Personality Traits

    Developed from inborn tendencies and ourenvironment

    Nature AND Nurture

    Six traits impact interpersonal relations and jobperformance:

    Extroversion

    Agreeableness

    Conscientiousness Emotional Stability (Neuroticism)

    Openness to Experience

    Self Monitoring of Behavior- How we are seen

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    Personality Types - Background

    Everyone has a preferred mode of operation withinthe four categories:

    Where we get our energy for life

    Extroverted or Introverted How we see reality (Take in information)

    Sensing or iNtuition

    How we judge that reality (Make decisions) Thinking or Feeling

    Our orientation with world on day-to-day basis

    Judging or Perceiving

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    Extraversion vs. Introversion

    Extroverts (E) - energy from external sources People and things

    Think out loud

    Empowered by others; Sense of connectedness Introverts (I) - energy from internal world

    Ideas and concepts

    Wait to speak until ideas fully formulated Spatiality

    What is said, not how much

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    Gathering Information

    Sensation (S) type individuals Prefer routine and order

    Search for concrete details (Specific and exact)

    Prefer to work with established facts Intuitive (N) type individuals

    Overall perspectiveBig Picture

    Generalities and approximations Rely on intuition

    Dislike routine

    Look for abstract possibilities from info gathered

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    Feeling (F) type individuals: Based on personal, subjective value systems

    Act on what they believe to be right

    May adapt to others wishes (Approval) or avoidissues that may cause disagreement

    Thinking (T) type individuals:

    Rely on logic and objective considerations Downplay emotion in problem solving anddecision-making

    Logical, rational, impartial

    Evaluating Information

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    Judging vs. Perceiving

    Judging (J)

    More comfortable with scheduled, structuredenvironment

    Neat, orderly, and settled Organized and purposeful

    Perceiving (P) More comfortable with open, casual environment

    Flexible and diverse

    AdaptabilityPlay it by ear

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    The Paul Principle

    Gradual obsolescence of leaders as they lose touchw/organization they lead

    Become too conservative (Risk-averse)

    Resist innovation and change (Stagnation) Fail to take advantage of technological

    breakthroughs (Comfortable)

    Find answers for problems from their youth

    Cant teach an old dog new tricks

    Antidotes?

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    Websters:

    A mental image

    Physical sensation interpreted in the light of

    experience Process people use to make sense of their

    environment

    XO says:Abiasthat can affect the way in which we process

    information

    Frequently leads to an incorrect deduction

    Perception

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    Why Important?

    Plays a powerful role in relationships withsuperiors, peers, and subordinates

    You will be judged and often judge others onthe perception of intentions and effectiveness

    Normally based on:

    Limited observation Incomplete information

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    Aspects of Perception

    Fundamental Attribution Error:

    Tendency to overestimate the dispositional causesof behavior and downplay the environmental factors

    in others behavior

    Self-Serving Bias:

    Blame external attributions for failure(environment/situation)

    Internal attributions (Intelligence/charisma)responsible for success

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    Aspects of Perception

    Actor/Observer Difference:

    People observingan action are much more likelythan the actor to make the fundamental attribution

    error

    Self-Fulfilling Prophecy:

    Expectations or predictions play a causal role inbringing about the events we predict (ForcedEventuality/Scenario Fulfillment)

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    Non-Verbal Communication

    Messages sent through actions and behaviorsrather than words

    Not what you say, but how you say it

    75-90% of our info is from non-verbal

    communication Message behind the message? (Emotion)

    Physical appearance

    Facial expressions/Eye contact Body language

    Aggressive, defensive, disconnected, relaxed

    Proxemics

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    How important is it?

    93% of emotional impact

    Message breakdown

    Verbal (Spoken words) 10%

    Vocal (Pitch, tone, timbre) 30%

    Body Language 60%

    Non-Verbal Communication

    What happens when words andactions contradict?

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    Become aware

    Dont contradict words w/body language

    Know facial expressions Benefits of smile/head nod

    Direct your eye contact

    Gesturing with purpose Note personal/cultural differences

    Using Non-verbal Advantageously

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    Listening Barriers

    Environmental

    External noise/other stimuli

    Internal stress/exhaustion/personalissues

    Physiological

    Speaking vs. Thinking Rate

    Ailment loss of hearing/flu

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    Listening Barriers(CONT)

    Psychological

    Selective Listening

    Negative Listening Attitudes

    Personal Reactions

    Words have meanings

    Buzz words

    Poor Motivation Lack of preparation

    Goals help you focus

    C i ti & th F

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    Communication & the FourManagement Functions

    Planning: Gather information Write memos, letters, reports Meet to formulate plans

    Organizing: Gather info about state of organization Communicate new structure

    Directing:

    Communicate plan and strategy (How and Why) Motivate employees

    Controlling: Feedback; How are we doing?

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    Assertiveness

    Stand up for your rights in a way thatrecognizes the rights of others to do the same.

    Differs from two other means of dealing with

    conflict:Acquiescence Back down easily when challenged

    Aggression Achieve aims by attacking or hurtingothers.

    Assertiveness achieves aims by directcommunication in an open, fair andpositive manner.

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    Assertiveness

    Take responsibility for what you say and do.

    Be clear about what you want.

    Speak up for what you need.

    Learn to say no. Exhibit positive inner dialogue.

    Be persistent.

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    Constructive Feedback

    Feedback should be helpful. (Positive ornegative)

    Be specific. Focus on behaviors.

    Be descriptive. Stick to the facts. Be timely.

    Be flexible. May have to wait for a better timeto give the feedback.

    Give both positive an