Paper Penginderaan Jauh
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PendahuluanLatar BelakangPenginderaan Jauh merupakan salah satu alat yang sering digunakan dalam berbagai disiplin ilmu karena sifatnya yang remote sehingga dapat memperoleh data tanpa perlu datang langsung ke tempat penelitian.Banyak jenis alat yang dapat digunakan dalam Penginderaan Jauh, seperti sensor yang dipasang pada pesawat terbang dan satelit. Khusus pada satelit, jenis sensor yang digunakan dapat lebih dari satu, sesuai dengan kebutuhan, dan juga luas daerah yang dapat dipetakan juga lebih luas sehingga dapat menunjukkan gejala yang lebih bersifat lebih luas.TujuanTujuan penulis dalam membuat paper ini antara lain: Mengetahui pengertian Penginderaan Jauh dan penggunaannya terhadap berbagai disiplin ilmu,
Mengetahui pengertian, kegunaan, contoh, dan organisasi yang berhubungan dengan satelit sebagai salah satu alat dalam Penginderaan Jauh.Metode
Metode penelitian yang penulis lakukan dalam penulisan paper ini adalah dengan cara melakukan pengumpulan data di internet melalui google dengan dua keyword, Remote Sensing dan Satelit, dan kemudian dirangkum menjadi beberapa bagian yang berhubungan dengan kedua hal di atas.
PembahasanRemote Sensing Usage in Coral Reefs Research
Participants of a Capacity Building Workshop learn to use remote sensing as a decision support tool, Marine Science Institute, Philippines
Coral reefs are complex systems affected by multiple natural and human processes. Remote sensing provides the only practical way to measure meaningful large-scale variations to coral reefs.
Until now, the remote sensing of coral reefs has been conducted on an ad-hoc basis with little consistency or insight into its limitations. For example, we know that some aspects of reef health can be resolved on shallow reefs in French Polynesia but we cannot predict whether this would be realistic in, say, Jamaica, where reefs have a different flora and fauna, are located in deeper water, and where light penetration is slightly reduced.
Without a generic understanding of reef remote sensing, the technology may continue to be oversold or used to meet unrealistic management objectives, resulting in wasted investment.
The Remote Sensing Working Group is developing and testing a wide range of remote sensing tools, including satellite, airborne, acoustic and in-field methods. The Group will quantify the limitations of coral reef remote sensing by combining modelling and field experiments.
The Group is focussed on four key areas:
1. Creation of decision-support and analysis software for monitoring the health of coral reefs using remote sensing
2. Development of methods to detect changes in coastal environment
3. Application of remote sensing to the inventory, monitoring and management of biodiversity
4. Creation of an Ocean Atlas and tools to manage coral bleachingDecision-support and analysis software for monitoring
The Remote Sensing Working Group is quantifying the limitations of coral reef remote sensing by combining modelling and field experiments. Models predict the ability of a given remote sensing instrument to detect the subtleties of bottom reflectance that distinguish reef habitats or the cover of corals and macroalgae within habitats.
While the passage of light through the water column is relatively well understood, the interaction of light between reef organisms, many of which have complex structures, presents a research challenge.
This problem is being addressed using radiosity methods which were originally developed in the computer graphics industry. Coral structures are divided into thousands of individual patches, each of which behaves as a reflecting surface. On reaching the reef, sunlight is reflected and scattered in predictable directions from which we can calculate the net light recorded by the sensor once it has passed back through the water and atmosphere.
Computer models will be refined and tested in the laboratory and then tested under field conditions in a unique, large-scale remote sensing experiment.
Methods to detect changes in the coastal environment
Remote sensing is needed to identify the habitat type and possibly predict the cover of corals and algae on a reef. The Remote Sensing Working Group is undertaking a number of activities to improve the way in which changes in reef condition can be predicted indirectly using remote sensing. These methods will highlight which areas of the coast have undergone the greatest change and help managers quantify the rate of change in reef habitat.
Inventory, monitoring and management of biodiversity
Recent remote sensing research has improved the detail of reef habitat maps but there is not necessarily a good understanding by management of the interpretation and uses of these products. Specifically, what do habitat maps mean in terms of biodiversity and reef function, and how should they be used for conservation planning?
Within the Centers of Excellence, there is an excellent opportunity to quantify the ecological basis of habitat maps. Through the work of the Remote Sensing Working Group, the species composition of habitats is being surveyed in Belize and Mexico and compared and assessed at a Caribbean-wide scale using comparable data from the Bahamas. Comparable surveys will take place in Palau and the Philippines but with less reliance on species-level identification.
A second biodiversity activity is quantifying the relationship between the topographic complexity of reef habitats (called rugosity) and the relative density of reef fish.
Creation of an Ocean Atlas and tools to manage coral bleaching
A wide variety of oceanographic and atmospheric remote sensing products is available for reef-relevant management but many are not user-friendly and found in disparate locations. Some US government agencies are establishing a national Ocean Atlas to collate data sets relevant to coastal management within a single website.
The Remote Sensing Working Group will extend this initiative to create an international Ocean Atlas for coral reef environments. The website will display a number of standard environmental products (e.g. wind speeds, wave heights, solar radiation) and will also develop and test new products which are especially relevant to coral bleaching. The Ocean Atlas will also be used by managers, scientists and students interested in many other ecosystems around the world.Progress so far
The Remote Sensing Working Group has data for more than 25 collaborative publications to be completed by June 2009.
The Group has also developed a new algorithm approach to incorporating spatial patterns of acute and chronic thermal stress into marine reserve networks.
By late 2008, the Working Group aims to have distribute a Beta-test version of the plane-parallel software, plus preliminary documentation. This will make industry-standard methods for modelling light interactions in natural waters available to students and developing-world scientists who cannot afford current commercial solutions. The plane-parallel software has been validated against commercial models across a range of water quality parameters, which far exceed those of natural waters. The very accurate results indicate that the algorithm implementation is error-free and will be essential in building future user-confidence in the software. The plane-parallel software is already finding use within the Working Group, with increased efficiency in arranging batch processing and other specialist uses.
Working Group Chair Professor Mumby has collaborated with Dr Steneck (Connectivity Working Group) to brief the Fisheries Administrator in Belize and reef managers in Bonaire concerning the predicted impacts of climate change on coral reefs.
In a program organised in collaboration with the Fisheries Department and Wildlife Conservation Society, Mumby and Steneck are currently helping the marine park director draft legislation to ban the use of fish traps and parrotfish exploitation.
Calculate Thermal Stress, Predict Bleaching
NOAA's Coral Reef Watch program has released a training module that teaches users how to predict coral bleaching from satellite sea surface temperature (SST) data.
The interactive training module has been developed by the Remote Sensing Working Group of the CRTR Program in collaboration with UNESCO's long-running Bilko remote-sensing distance-learning project. Bilko is available to registered users absolutely free and is used by thousands of students of remote sensing worldwide.
Says RSWG Chair Professor Peter Mumby, the step-by-step lesson follows the operational Coral Reef Watch methodology, so that users will gain in-depth knowledge of how the NOAA data are produced.
They will learn how to calculate a long-term average temperature from satellite data, and identify a specialised anomaly (HotSpot) that shows areas where corals are under stress and likely to be bleaching.
To demonstrate how these satellite data are used in the real world, the lesson ends with an activity based on a real bleaching event in the Caribbean Sea in 2005. Users can interpret satellite data to predict coral bleaching, then compare their predictions with real-life bleaching data.
For more information and to review the lesson, visit coralreefwatch.noaa.gov/satellite/education/bilko_lesson.html or www.unesco.bilko.org/noaa_crw.php
(http://www.gefcoral.org/Targetedresearch/Remotesensing/tabid/3211/language/en-US/Default.aspx)Indian Remote Sensing SatellitesPast Satellites
Bhaskara I, 1979
Bhaskara II, 1981
Rohini Series, 1980-83
SROSS Series, 1985-92