Outdoor Leadership · Web viewDisplaying excellent peer leadership, your group steps in and uses...
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Di setiap expedisi atau kegiatan yang berhasil, maka anggota dari team tersebut haruslah mematuhi semua peraturan yang diberikan atau di gariskan oleh pemimpinnya yang bertujuan untuk mencapai sasaran. Ada empat type kepemimpinan yang penting untuk kita ketahui.
Designated Leadership ( Penunjukan )
Photo: Matt Deines
Mengambil tanggung jawab sebagai pempimpin kelompok dan memandu kelompok itu untuk mencapai tujuan.
Mendeterminasikan bagai mana kelompok ini dapat mencapai tujuannya.
Photo: Tony Jewell
Mendukung dan mengikuti pemimpin yang mengambil tanggung jawab regu
Berpastisipasi dalam regu dan mengambil keputusan berdasarkan input yang di berikan, kemudian menunggu keputusan akhir regu.
Photo: Tom Bol
Kerja sama dalam satu regu dimana satu sama lain saling mendukung untuk mencapai tujuan kelompok
Setiap anggota saling melihat apakah yang di perlukan hingga semuanya dapat selesai dikerjakan.
Photo: Allie Barker
Setiap individu bertanggung jawab atas dirinya sendiri, sehingga ia dapat menolong regu itu sendiri
Setiap individu sudah dapat mengambil inisiatif sendiri atau sudah mandiri.
Ada beberapa jenis keahlian kepemimpinan yang dapat membuatmu menjadi seorang pemimpin yang handal. Semua keahlian ini hampir sama artinya, tinggal bagai mana kamu mengasah dan menggunakannya sesuai dengan situasi yang tepat dan sesuai kebutuhkan.
Expedition Behavior (E.B.)
Photo: Tony Jewell
Kerja sama dan resolusi konflik
Tetap pada pendirianmu dan memotifasi yang lain
Ambil waktu yang lama dengan orang yang beragam dalam satu kelompok
Photo: Brad Christensen
Pengetahuan dan Keahlian
Manajemen dan Organisasi
Kemampuan secara Tehnis
Scenario:It's the last week of your 30-day Wind River Wilderness course, and you're on the student expedition, the last stage in your development as a leader. One of your course mates stumbles over while hiking and hits her head on a rock. Displaying excellent peer leadership, your group steps in and uses the first aid skills you've learned on the course, stabilizing her spine in case of neck or back injuries, and arranging an evacuation.
Photo: Tony Jewell
Gunakan pembagian waktu, jelaskan dengan baik
Pendengar yang baik
Beranilah katakan apa maksudmu, yang kamu rasakan dan apa yang kamu inginkan
Cobalah merendahkan dirimu di bawah kaki orang sebelum terjadi konflik.
Judgment & Decision-Making
Pendekatan secara situasi untuk mengambil keputusan
gunakan pengalamanmu untuk mengembangkan hasil keputusan yang terbaik
kenyamanan dalam regu merupakan kekuatan dan pengetahuan setiap anggaota dapat membantu memecahkan semua masalah
Scenario:Klub Badai Biru, mengadakan pendakian, pimpinan regu mendapat kabar dari base camp bahwa terjadi kabut tebal disertai angin dingin di ketinggian 2900 mdpl itu adalah tiga pos terkahir mencapai puncak. Salah satu anggota regu mengalami merasa tidak enak badan, rasa mual dan badan agak terasa dingin. Mungkin dia terlalu banyak makan mie instant & sambel cap jempol, dan sangat pedas. Damar Putu Wayang, seorang seorang anggoata regu yang sudah biasa mendaki gunung tersebut mengatakan bahwa kabut akan hilang sekitar satu setengah jam lagi. Lebih baik kita terus mendaki dengan menambah kecepatan pendakian. Akhirnya team mengikuti kemauan Damar karena dia memaksa terus menerus. Pada ketinggian 2300 mdpl, seorang anggota regu ; Andry Plontos kakinya keseleo.
Sebagai seorang pemimpin apakah yang kamu akan putuskan dan akan kamu lakukan untuk keselamatan regu, ingat bahwa regumu mempunyai anggota yang sudah terlatih dalam kepemimpinan semua kegiatan alam ?. Uraikan jawaban dalam diskusi regu. Dan jangan lupa menempatkan kasus ini sesuai dengan type kepemimpinan.
Tolerance for Adversity & Uncertainty
Photo: Tony Jewell
Belajar untuk bertahan, walau tdk enak dan bekerja keras untuk setiap kesempatan
Beradaptasi untuk perubahan dan ketidak tahuan
Rubahlah tantangan menjadi kesempatan
Gunakan humor untuk menjadikan situasi tetap terkendali
Tetap focus dalam keputusan walaupun dalam situasi tertekan
Scenario:On the way to the summit of Wind River Peak in Wyoming's backcountry, your group sees some nasty weather approaching. Summiting the peak has been your team's goal from the beginning of the expedition, but as the rain starts to sting your face, you realize the dream may not become a reality. Rather than resorting to grumpiness, you grin and bear it, laughing about your wet boots and pointing out an alternative route that will be just as rewarding.
Ketahui dirimu sendiri, kekuatanmu dan kelemahanmu
Belajarlah dari pengalaman
Perhatikanlah model dari kepemimpinanmu dan bagai mana kamu dapat mempengaruhi yang lain
Perhatikan setiap perkataanmu dan setiap aksimu yang dapat mempengaruhi yang lain
Scenario:It's the end of the third day of your expedition, and you're beginning to feel a "hot spot" on your heel, the start of a bad blister. If you tell someone, the whole group will have to stop while you take off your hiking boots. But, if you don't address the problem, the blister might get infected, leaving you unable to walk and your group faced with a much trickier dilemma.
Vision & Action
Photo: Tom Bol
Perhatikan kesempatan di setiap situasi dan carilah jalan kreatif untuk membawa regu tetap bergerak.
Motifasi & Inisiatif
Gunakan tujuan regu untuk menuntun semua aksi mu
Scenario:Your expedition has a tough decision to make do you hike hard for ten miles so you can reach a spectacular valley, or do you take a different route, enjoying some of the great fly fishing along the way. Now's your chance to rise to the occasion, motivating the group to take action and helping out others in the group who might be having a hard time deciding.
Leave No Trace
Leave nothing but footprints,
Take nothing but pictures,
Kill nothing but time.
Responsible campers should always observe the rules of the "Leave No Trace Program." This program is based upon good environmental stewardship. The principles are:
1. Plan Ahead and Prepare
2. Travel and Camp on Durable Surfaces
3. Dispose of Waste Properly
4. Leave What You Find
5. Minimize Campfire Impacts
6. Respect Wildlife
7. Be Considerate of Other Visitors
Help protect the backcountry by remembering that while you are there, you are a visitor. When you visit a friend, you take care to leave your friends home just as you found it. You would never think of trampling garden flowers, chopping down trees in the yard, putting soap in the drinking water, or marking your name on the living room wall. When you visit the backcountry, the same courtesies apply. Leave everything just as you found it.
Hiking and camping without a trace are signs of an expert outdoorsman, and of anyone who cares for the environment. Travel lightly on the land.
Plan Ahead and Prepare
1. Know the regulations and special concerns for the area you'll visit.
2. Prepare for extreme weather, hazards, and emergencies.
3. Schedule your trip to avoid times of high use.
4. Visit in small groups when possible. Consider splitting larger groups into smaller groups.
5. Repackage food to minimize waste.
6. Use a map and compass to eliminate the use of marking paint, rock cairns or flagging.
Travel and Camp on Durable Surfaces
1. Durable surfaces include established trails and campsites, rock, gravel, dry grasses or snow.
2. Protect riparian areas by camping at least 200 feet from lakes and streams.
3. Good campsites are found, not made. Altering a site is not necessary.
4. In popular areas:
a. Concentrate use on existing trails and campsites.
b. Walk single file in the middle of the trail, even when wet or muddy.
c. Keep campsites small. Focus activity in areas where vegetation is absent.
5. In pristine areas:
a. Disperse use to prevent the creation of campsites and trails.
b. Avoid places where impacts are just beginning.
Dispose of Waste Properly
1. Pack it in, pack it out. Inspect your campsite and rest areas for trash or spilled foods. Pack out all trash, leftover food, and litter.
2. Deposit solid human waste in catholes dug 6 to 8 inches deep at least 200 feet from water, camp, and trails. Cover and disguise the cathole when finished.
3. Pack out toilet paper and hygiene products.
4. To wash yourself or your dishes, carry water 200 feet away from streams or lakes and use small amounts of biodegradable soap. Scatter strained dishwater.
Leave What You Find
1. Preserve the past: examine, but do not touch, cultural or historic structures and artifacts.
2. Leave rocks, plants and other natural objects as you find them.
3. Avoid introducing or transporting non-native species.
4. Do not build structures, furniture, or dig trenches.
Minimize Campfire Impacts
1. Campfires can cause lasting impacts to the backcountry. Use a lightweight stove for cooking and enjoy a candle lantern for light.
2. Where fires are permitted, use established fire rings, fire pans, or mound fires.
3. Keep fires small. Only use sticks from the ground that can be broken by hand.
4. Burn all wood and coals to ash, put out campfires completely, then scatter cool ashes.
1. Observe wildlife from a distance. Do not follow or approach them.
2. Never feed animals. Feeding wildlife damages their health, alters natural behaviors, and exposes them to predators and other dangers.
3. Protect wildlife and your food by storing rations and trash securely.
4. Control pets at all times, or leave them at home.
5. Avoid wildlife during sensitive times: mating, nesting, raising young, or winter.
Be Considerate of Other Visitors
1. Respect other visitors and protect the quality of their experience.
2. Be courteous. Yield to other users on the trail.
3. Step to the downhill side of the trail when encountering pack stock.
4. Take breaks and camp away from trails and other visitors.
5. Let nature's sounds prevail. Avoid loud voices and noises
Category: Recreation Level: Level 2Year Introduced: 1986 Item Number: YOU6055 Originating Institution: General Conference
1.Earn four of the following honors. Any of these honors earned more than two years ago should be restudied so that you can answer any of the knowledge questions included in their requirements.
a. Camping Skills IV
b. Fire Building and Camp Cookery
c. Winter Camping
2.Have the First Aid Honor
3.Know what to do to overcome fear when lost. Know at least four ways to signal for help if lost in the wilderness.
4.Know at least four secular activities and four Sabbath activities to use in an outdoor setting if you have a rainy day.
5.Do the following in an outdoor setting.
a.Plan, organize, and do the teaching of one nature honor to a group of youth.
b.Assist in teaching camping skills required in any camping honor and/or Pathfinder Class requirements to a group of youth.
c.Determine where the nearest hospital is located.
d.Determine where the nearest assistance from the police or a park ranger can be obtained.
6. Through Bible and/or Spirit of Prophecy study, learn how the outdoors influenced the following Bible characters:
d.John the Baptist
7.Know what considerations should be given in an outdoor setting with a group of youth in the following areas:
b. Fire safety
d.Swimming safety rules e. Rules for conduct
e. Proper Sabbath observance
8.List at least six ways you can keep the out-of-doors beautiful for others to enjoy.
9.Know at least ten qualities of a good youth leader.
Camping Skills IV
Category: Recreation Level : Level 2Year Introduced: 1986 Item Number: YOU5215 Originating Institution: General Conference
1. Be in at least the 8th grade or 12 years old.
2. Plan and execute a one-hour Sabbath camping activity other than worship to make the Sabbath a meaningful experience.
3. Write a 200-word essay on the preservation of the wilderness, discussing etiquette and conservation.
4. Plan your menu for a two-day camping trip and estimate the cost.
5. Participate in two weekend campouts.
6. Start a fire in wet weather, knowing where to get tinder and how to keep your fire going.
7. Know the wood best suited for making a quick, hot fire.
8. Know the wood best suited for making coals for cooking.
9. Demonstrate how to split firewood.
10.Demonstrate the proper care and storage of camp foods, and how to build various caches to protect food from animals.
11.Prepare a camp dinner with soup, vegetables, entree, and drink, all of which must be cooked.
12.Bake your food in a reflector oven.
13.Purify water by three different methods.
Category: Recreation Level: Level 1Year Introduced: 1933 Item Number: YOU5700 Originating Institution: General Conference
1. Explain and demonstrate the main points of good hiking practice, such as pacing, speed, resting, and etiquette.
2. Explain the importance and method of proper foot care with regard to cleanliness, care of nails, socks, shoe selection, and first aid of tender or blistered feet.
3. Make a list of proper clothing to be worn on a hike in both hot and cool weather.
4. Make a list of needed gear for a long day hike in the wilderness and a short country hike.
5. List five safety and courtesy rules to be used in wilderness trail hiking and road hiking.
6. Explain the importance of drinking water and list three signs of contaminated water.
7. Explain the importance of proper eating while hiking.
8. Describe proper clothing and foot gear for cold and hot wet weather hiking.
9. Submit a written plan for a ten-mile hike which includes: map route, clothing list, equipment list, and water and/or food.
10.Use a topographical map and/or a road map in planning and doing one of the hikes in Requirement 11.
11.Have the following hiking record:
a. One five-mile (8 km) rural or town hike
b. One five-mile ( 8 km) hike on a wilderness trail
c. Two 10-mile (16.1 km) day hikes on different routes
d. One 15-mile (24.2 km) hike on a wilderness trail
e. Within a month of each hike, write a short report, giving dates, routes covered, weather, and any interesting things you saw.
Category: Recreation Level: Level 2Year Introduced: 1986 Item Number: YOU5065 Originating Institution: General Conference
1. Discuss with your instructor the meaning of the motto: "Take nothing but pictures and leave nothing but footprints."
2. Know the essentials of proper clothing, shoes, and rain gear to use in backpacking.
3. Know the principles in selecting a good quality backpack. In an emergency, what might be used in place of a backpack?
4. Know the essential items to be taken on a backpack trip.
5. What kind of sleeping bag and pad are best for your camping area? Know at least three kinds of each that are available.
6. Know how to pack a pack properly.
7. What types of food are best for backpacking? Visit a grocery store and list the foods found there that are suitable for backpacking. With your instructor:
a. Prepare a menu for a weekend backpack trip using foods obtained from a grocery store.
b. Learn the techniques of measuring, packaging, and labeling backpack foods for your trip.
c. Make a trail snack.
8. Know the prevention and symptoms of, and the first aid for:
e. Heat stroke
f. Heat exhaustion
g. Snake bite
9. Have a First Aid Kit in your pack and know how to use it.
10.According to your weight, what is the maximum number of pounds you should be allowed to carry?
11.Know three ways to find direction without a compass. Demonstrate at least two.
12.Show the proper way to put on and take off a backpack alone and with a partner.
13.Participate in a weekend backpack trip of at least five miles and cook your own meals.
Fire Building & Camp Cookery
Category: Recreation Level: Level 2Year Introduced: 1956 Item Number: YOU5550 Originating Institution: General Conference
1. Lay five different kinds of fires and know their uses. Two of these fires must be cooking fires.
2. Safely make wood shavings or fuzz sticks.
3. Show correct techniques for starting a fire.
4. Start a fire with one match and keep it going for at least ten minutes.
5. Know and practice fire safety rules.
6. Show how to correctly and safely cut and split fire wood.
7. Demonstrate ability to start fire on a rainy day or in the snow.
8. Demonstrate simmering, boiling, frying, baking bread on a stick, aluminum foil baking, reflector oven baking.
9. Know one method of keeping food cool while camping other than with ice.
10.Know ways to keep your food and utensils safe from animals and insects.
11.Why is it important to keep your cooking and eating utensils clean?
12.Showing knowledge of proper nutrition and food groups, make up a complete and balanced menu for six camping meals.Include the following:
a. A breakfast, lunch, or supper good for a trail hike where light weight is important. The meal should not need cooking but should be nutritious.
b. The remaining five meals may be made up of any type of food: canned, fresh, frozen, or dried. One of the five must be a one-pot meal.
13.Make up a supply list of items that will be needed to prepare the above six meals.
14.Know how to properly and safely handle food, dispose of trash and garbage, and wash your gear.
First Aid Basic
Category: Health & ScienceLevel: Level 1Year Introduced: 1951 Item Number: YOU5080 Originating Institution: General Conference
If residing in the United States or another country where Red Cross instruction is given satisfactorily, pass the Red Cross Examination in Basic First Aid and receive your certificate. (11-14 years of age)
In British countries pass the examination in St. John Ambulance Junior First Aid examination and receive certificate for the same. (15 years and under)
1. Know the causes of shock and demonstrate its proper treatment.
2. Know the proper steps for rescue breathing.
3. Know the proper procedures to assist a choking victim.
4. Know the proper procedures to assist a bleeding victim.
5. Know the pressure points and how to correctly apply pressure at these points.
6. Know the proper procedure to assist a victim of poisoning.
7. Demonstrate the proper procedure in splinting various broken bones in the body.
8. Know the proper procedure to assist a first, second, and third degree burn victim.
9. Know the proper procedure to assist a victim of a chemical burn.
10.Know what situations are likely to cause carbon monoxide poisoning and the rescue and treatment techniques for such poisoning.
11.Know the proper procedure for giving assistance to the victim of a head injury.
12.Know the proper procedure for giving aid to a victim of internal injuries.
13.Know the difference between a heart attack, stroke, epilepsy, and simple fainting, and the treatment for each.
14.Know how to prevent infection.
15.What is the proper treatment for a snake bite?
16.What is the proper treatment for animal bites?
17.What is the proper treatment for insect and spider bites?
18.What is the difference between heat exhaustion and heat stroke, and what is the treatment for each?
19.What should you do if your clothes catch fire?
20.What are the basic fire prevention principles for the home?
21.What are the basic water safety principles?
22.What are the ways to save a drowning victim without swimming?
23.What are the basic electrical safety principles?
24.How can you prevent food poisoning?
By Ernest Seton
It is a good rule in hiking to set out with the idea of keeping the party together, having a pleasant time, and seeing interesting things, rather than of showing how hardy you are. It is as bad as trying to show how smart you are. Do not try to make a record. Record breakers generally come to grief in the end. Take a few boys, not more than a dozen, and set out determined to be moderate. Plan a moderate trip of which not more than half the time must be consumed in going and coming.
For example, if it is Saturday afternoon and you must be home by six o'clock, having thus four hours, divide the time into two hours' travel, going and coming, and two hours' exploration or sight-seeing. Three miles is a moderate walk for one hour, so that should be the limit of distance that ordinarily you tramp from your starting point. At five o'clock all hands should be ready to face homeward.
In a large city it may be that the hike will be taken to a park, to a museum, or to a place or point of historical interest. In this connection it might be well for some member of the tribe to make a list of the interesting historical places, of the museums of various kinds, of interesting buildings, including any manufacturing plants; and have this list ready when it is decided to take a hike.
The following are some of the rules which have been found good in hiking:
Do not go in new shoes.
Make sure that your feet are comfortable. (A comfortable shoe is not too tight nor too loose.)
See that your stockings are without holes and ordinarily without large darns. (When going on a long hike it is well to take an extra pair of stockings with you.)
In walking keep your toes practically straight ahead of you.
Walking with your feet turned out is tiring and results in foot trouble.
Try to have the members of the group of similar age and physical ability.
If going in the country it is well to take a tape line, knife, some string, and some matches.
A compass and a pocket level and a map also are of value in many cases.
A notebook and pencil are of great value.
Remember that the value of the hike is in doing things which you cannot do at home, and last and most important it is wise to set out with a definite object.
Here are some of the objects for a short hike:
To determine that hard maple or any other timber does or does not grow in such woods or such a park.
To see how many kinds of trees can be discovered in a given place, or how many kinds of wild flowers.
To practise the building of fires--of wildwood material.
To have a practical demonstration in cooking.
To get acquainted with the birds.
To learn the geological formation of a certain rock or ledge.
To get 100 straight rods, 30 inches long; to make an Indian bed of willow, hazel, red willow (kinikinik) arrowwood, etc.
To get wood for rubbing sticks or the fire-bow.
To get horns for a Caribou dance.
If there is snow, to take, by the tracks, a census of a given woods, making full-size drawings of each track--that is four tracks, one for each foot, and also give the distance to the next set.
Most important of all, remember that though it is wise to start with an object, it is still wiser to change whenever some much more alluring pursuit or opportunity turns up. Any one who sticks to a plan merely because he started that way, when it turns out to be far from the best, is not only unwise--he is stupid and obstinate.
Make sure that as you travel to the point you have selected that your eyes and ears are open to see the hundreds of interesting things that may be seen along the roadside.
In the 1930s, the Mountaineers, a Seattle-based hiking, climbing, and conservation organization, came up with a list of 10 essential items that no hiker should be without.
"The Ten Essential
A map not only tells you where you are and how far you have to go, it can help you find campsites, water, and an emergency exit route in case of an accident.
A compass can help you find your way through unfamiliar terrain-especially in bad weather where you can't see the landmarks.
3. Water and a way to purify it:
Without enough water, your body's muscles and organs simply can't perform as well: You'll be susceptible to hypothermia and altitude sickness. not to mention the abject misery of raging thirst.
4. Extra food:
Any number of things could keep you out longer than expected: a lengthy detour, getting lost, an injury, difficult terrain. A few ounces of extra food will help keep up energy and morale.
5. Rain gear and extra clothing:
Because the weatherman is not always right. Especially above tree line, bring along extra layers. Two rules: Avoid cotton (it keeps moisture close to your skin), and always carry a hat.
6. Fire starter and matches:
The warmth of a fire and a hot drink can help prevent an encounter with hypothermia, and help you feel more secure. Fires are also a great way to signal for help if you get lost.
7. First aid kit:
Prepackaged first aid kits for hikers are available at outfitters. Double your effectiveness with knowledge: Take a basic first aid class with the American Red Cross or a Wilderness First Aid class, offered by many hiking organizations.
8. Army knife or multi-purpose tool:
These enable you to cut strips of cloth into bandages, remove splinters, fix broken eyeglasses, and perform a whole host of repairs on malfunctioning gear-not to mention cut cheese and open cans.
9. Flashlight and extra bulbs:
For finding your way in the dark and signaling for help.
10. Sun screen and sun glasses:
Especially above tree line when there is a skin-scorching combination of sun and snow, you'll need sunglasses to prevent snow blindness, and sunscreen to prevent sunburn.
You should also have a whistle! Before you hit the trail, here are a few items you should consider:
Consult a map or a guidebook to get an idea of the terrain. You need to know whether you're in for an easy stroll or muscle-wrenching climb. Guidebooks and maps will also tell you about rest stops, distances between them, elevation gain and loss, and water sources.
Get a weather forecast (remember that valley forecasts do not apply to a ridge 5,000 feet up a mountain!) You should also know what the average conditions are, as well as the possible extremes. Can it snow in August? You'll need a hat and warm clothes. Do the springs run dry during a drought? Bring an extra water bottle.
Know how far you have to walk. Municipal regulations, time restrictions, or the terrain may dictate local trail use. Be sure you can make the distance! Some parks close the gate at sundown, so you want to be back before then.
Pack enough food (plus a little extra for the time you intend to be out).
Leave your itinerary (however detailed it may or may not be ) with someone at home. Let them know when you'll be back, and what to do if you don't show.
Heatstroke (or "Sunstroke")
Exposure to high temperature may lead either to excessive fluid loss and dehypovolemic shock (heat exhaustion) or to failure of heat mechanisms and dangerous hyperpyrexia (heatstroke)
Common sense is the best preventive; strenuous exertion in a very hot environment and insulating clothing should be avoided, and an adequate fluid intake is important.
Heatstroke is the opposite of Hypothermia, and is sometimes known as Sunstroke.
An abrupt onset is sometimes preceded by headache, vertigo, and fatigue. Sweating is usually, but not always decreased, and the skin is hot, flushed, and usually dry. The pulse rate increases rapidly and may reach 160; respirations usually increase, but the blood pressure is seldom affected. Disorientation may briefly precede unconsciousness or convulsions. The temperature climbs rapidly to 105.8F (41C) and the patient feels as if burning up. Circulatory collapse may precede death; after hours of extreme hyperpyrexia, survivors are likely to have permanent brain damage.
Old age, debility, or alcoholism worsens the prognosis.
Treatment must begin immediately. If distant from a hospital, the patient should be wrapped in wet bedding or clothing, immersed in a lake or stream. The temperature should be taken every 10 minutes and not allowed to fall below 100.4F (38C) to avoid converting hyperpyrexia to hypothermia. [??]
The patient should be taken to hospital as soon as possible after the emergency methods have been instituted for further management.
Bed rest is desirable for a few days after severe heatstroke, and unstable temperatures may be expected for weeks.
The ability to navigate accurately and efficiently in all conditions - particularly low visibility - and on all types of terrain is the single most important skill an outdoors person can possess. There is no mystique about good navigation (although it does take a little practice). Despite this, many campers still take to the hills with inadequate map and compass skills, and navigational error remains the single greatest contributory factor to incidents resulting in Mountain Rescue callouts.
Discourage people from constructing or adding to cairns (piles of rocks which serve as rudimentary route markers). Not only do they look unsightly, but also they can encourage the ill-prepared and inexperienced to venture further into the mountains than may be wise, with a false sense of security. Instead, inexperienced hikers are encouraged to either learn to navigate, or go with experienced guides.
To get the most from your day in the mountains you will probably wish to spend some time in advance deciding on the most suitable route. Factors to be considered include:
Distance and height gain of route, and time required for completion.
The amount of daylight available and estimated time of return.
The size, fitness and experience of group.
Nature of the terrain, and possible conditions underfoot (e.g.. ice).
Possible escape routes.
The local weather forecast, and poor weather alternatives.
You may wish to prepare a detailed route card, you should also let someone know your intended route and your estimated time of return. Do not forget to notify this person of your safe return!
If you leave word of your intended route, it also goes without saying that you should stick to your plan, unless, of course, you feel that this will place you or your Patrol at risk.
When selecting the best route line during your walk there are many obvious dangers to be avoided, such as cliff tops in windy weather and icy slopes, however you should also be conscious of less obvious hazards. This includes such things as grassy slopes and lichen covered rock slabs, which may look innocent, but which can be every bit as dangerous as the more obvious hazards, particularly in wet weather.
It is a good idea to get into the habit of asking yourself how great are the chances of a slip, and what the likely consequences of that slip might be. Remember that a simple slip is the cause of a large proportion of serious wilderness accidents.
If you are on a slope where rocks could potentially be dislodged, keep your group bunched tightly together so that any dislodged rocks do not have the opportunity to build momentum, but can be stopped immediately by the person behind. Be particularly aware of the danger you may pose to other groups below you, and of the danger you may be facing from careless groups above you. If a rock is accidentally dislodged, the standard procedure is to shout "Rock!" or "Below!" as a warning to all others.
As a general rule of thumb you should always pack with the assumption that you may end up having to stay out after dark, even if it is through no fault of your own (for example you may be required to help another hiker in distress). Try to be an asset and not a burden to any group that you are a part of. A minimum list of equipment to carry on a day's hike includes the following:
Waterproof jacket and pants
Plenty of warm clothing (nylon or fleece, but not cotton)
Hat and gloves
Map and compass (and the ability to use them!)
Food and fluids (and spare food!)
Space blanket and a large orange garbage bag
First aid kit (including pencil and waterproof paper if possible)
Flashlight (+ spare battery and bulb)
Temperature decreases with altitude, at a rate of approximately 2-3C per 300 meters height gained (known as the lapse rate). In reality, what this means for the hiker is that the temperature on the mountain tops may be as much as 10C lower than that at the valley floors, and when increased wind-chill is taken into consideration, winter temperatures may fall as low as -4F (-20C). These are severe conditions indeed, and require the best of equipment just to survive.
Precipitation on the other hand increases with altitude, and may be up to 300% greater than in neighboring lowlands. Mountain rivers can become raging torrents extremely quickly, and what was crossable in the morning may not necessarily be crossable on your return in the evening. Drowning may not appear on most hikers' lists of potential dangers but it does happen and should be regarded as a very real danger. If in doubt, do not attempt to cross!
Mist and fog present obvious complications for navigation, and can appear surprisingly quickly in the mountains.
Despite all the best preparations, the wilderness is hazardous and unforgiving, and accidents can happen at any time. It is also possible that you may find yourself first on the scene of an accident involving another party.
When things do go wrong, above all else Stay Calm! Think Clearly! Think Logically!
The initial time you spend assessing the situation is critical. If early decisions are rushed, you may pay the price later. By its nature, Mountain Rescue is a slow business, so do not be afraid to take as long as necessary to think your situation through and decide on the best course of action. Making the right decisions at this stage may well save time in the long run.
If a Search and Rescue Team needs to be called out, try to send at least two competent Patrol members to raise the alarm, with a written note explaining the nature of the problem, the number of people involved, the exact location (both with a 6-figure grid reference and a written description), and your intended course of action. Consider carrying a pre-prepared blank incident report form and casualty card on waterproof paper in your first aid kit, which can be filled in when needed
To call a Mountain Rescue Team, dial 911 and ask for Search and Rescue. The messengers may be required to wait by the phone for further instructions, and may be used to guide the Team to the exact location of the incident, so they should be the fittest group members if possible.
Be prepared for a long wait: including the time it takes for your messengers to reach a phone, the team callout and assembly time, and the time required for the team to walk to your location with heavy equipment.
You may decide that if there is a danger of hypothermia it is best to evacuate most of the party and leave a small group remaining with the casualty. You may also decide that it is necessary to move the casualty to a more sheltered or safer location (if so, ensure that someone will be on hand to guide the Team to your new location).
Consider how your group members or passers-by can best be deployed, and how the equipment carried by the group can best be redistributed and utilized. Consider 'alternative' uses for the equipment you are carrying, for example camera flashes can be used to attract attention in the dark, a rope laid out along the ground will maximize your chances of being located in poor visibility, and a survival bag can be used for attracting attention. The standard distress signal is three sharp whistle blasts (or flashlight flashes) followed by a one minute silence, repeated.
Don't lose touch with common sense when coming to any decisions!
A good piece of kit to carry in the wilderness is flashing red strobe light used on bicycles as rear lights. They can be seen over a great distance at night.
Crossing rivers and streams can be perilous and unpleasant, but with proper steps can be fun and safe. It can be even more dangerous crossing water if a person has poor balance and a lack of confidence at it. Here are a few safety tips:
Always unsnap your backpack straps - if you go down you can rid yourself of your pack and avoid being drowned by its weight.
Wear sandals, lightweight camp shoes with decent tread, or aqua socks to protect your feet from cuts and general pain from sharp rocks.
Choose your crossing site carefully. If you can safely boulder hop, go for it, but be alert to slippery surfaces. This is no place or time to break an ankle. If boulder hopping cannot be accomplished safely, go to the water. Generally speaking, deeper but slower flowing water is safer to cross than shallow, swift moving waters. Avoid narrow channels where waters usually flow faster and with more turbulence. Test the water's "pace." Remember that the added weight and top-heavy traits of your pack make you far less agile than you might be accustomed to. Be very careful.
Walk facing upstream - towards the rushing water. Walk sideways. Use your staff as a third leg. Move slowly and deliberately, while leaning your weight slightly forward and against your staff.
Roping or shuttling (bucket brigade style) packs across might work
as well. Always carry critical gear and clothing in waterproof bags. The first time you topple into the water, you'll understand why!
Safety Precautions for Swimmers
Physical Fitness: Every swimmer must prove that he is fit and able to swim. An adult should be in possession of and familiar with a health history from a physician or guardian for every swimmer.
Ability Groups: Know your own swimming ability as well as those in the Patrol. If there are any non-swimmers do not allow these individuals into the water past their waist.
Discipline: All simmers should be aware of the rules and follow the directions of the Lifeguard and Lookout without exception.
Buddy System: Never swim alone; always use the "buddy system".
Adult Supervision: A qualified adult must be present at all times. If a member of the Patrol or Troop is noticed missing or lost, bring it to the attention of someone (preferably an adult leader) immediately. Reporting a person missing as soon as possible increases the chances of them being located unharmed.
Lifeguard: Try, whenever possible, to swim where a trained lifeguard is present.
Lookout: When you bring members of your Patrol to any swimming area, make certain to have one person responsible for keeping his eyes on them at all times. In many cases the swimming area is very populated. If a Patrol or Troop is brought, a "head count" every 10 - 15 minutes can be very beneficial.
Safe Area: Be aware of your surroundings. Know the depth of the water, direction of current, strength of current, and any objects in the water. Only swim in designated areas. Do not swim where swimming is not allowed.
For Campout Equipment Checklists, see : Equipment Lists
Good quality camping gear is important because you depend on your equipment in the wilderness. If cost is an important factor, consider purchasing camping equipment in used sports equipment outlets, and camp clothing in thrift stores.
A jacket should keep out wind, rain, and snow and is a very important layer of clothing. If this layer fails, it doesn't matter how good your other garments are, because wet clothing exposed to the wind will chill you quickly no matter form what material it is made.
Remember, uncontrollable shivering is always the first stage of hypothermia. Avoid jackets that have any cotton content.
Types of Material
Breathable Shell: Typically made from nylon or nylon blends, wind-proof jackets are lightweight and tightly woven, so there are no open spaces for the wind to penetrate. They dry quickly and make excellent outer shells.
Pro: Windproof. Allows body moisture to escape. Lightweight. Inexpensive.
Con: Not waterproof.
Waterproof Shell: These are fabrics that use some type of impermeable waterproof coating (i.e. coated nylon). These will keep you dry from rain but allow water vapor from perspiration to build up in layers underneath.
A good waterproof shell will have vents under the armpits and under a flap located between the shoulder blades. Make sure that your rain suit includes rain pants. Avoid ponchos, which catch in the wind and offer no protection for your legs.
Pro: Very waterproof. Windproof. Inexpensive.
Con: Exertion may cause body moisture build-up.
Waterproof and Breathable Shell: There are a number of ways to make a waterproof and breathable outer shell. All rely on the principle that water droplets from rain are more than 20,000 times larger than water vapor. With fabric that has a layer with very small pores, water vapor can pass through from the inside to the outside while the outside remains impenetrable to water droplets.
At least that is the theory. Before you invest in a breathable shell jacket, ask people you know how well a specific brand really works in an extended downpour. There is always a trade-off between the degree of waterproofness of a fabric and its breathability. Some fabrics use a microporous membrane (GoreTex); others have an added microporous coating (Ultrex).
Pro: Degrees of waterproofness. Degree of breathability. Windproof.
Con: Degrees of waterproofness. Degree of breathability. Some body moisture buildup. Expensive.
Your boots are perhaps your most important camping equipment. They should be selected according to your needs: trail conditions, terrain, pack weight, and personal requirements. Boots are an investment. Selecting, fitting, breaking in, and caring for your boots will help them last a long time and will maximize your own comfort. For Leave No Trace camping, you should also pack a pair of light-weight footwear to wear around the campsite.
The proper fitting of boots is essential. You should try new boots on in the afternoon, since your feet swell during the day. Select your new boots while wearing a sock combination of a liner sock under a heavy-duty hiking sock. Usually a hiking boot will be a half-size larger than your normal shoe size to make room for this combination of liner and heavy hiking socks.
The boots should fit comfortably with moderate tension on the laces so you can tighten or loosen the boots as needed. With your foot flat on the floor, try to lift your heel inside the boot. There should only be 1/4 to 1/2 inches (6 to 12 millimeters) of heel lift.
Break in a new pair of boots before your trip. Begin with short walks and gradually increase the time you wear them to allow the boots to soften and adjust to your feet.
Boot care varies with the type of material - leather, synthetic leather, nylon, and combinations of these. If you have leather hiking boots, find out what type of leather it is. Oil-tanned leather is usually treated with a wax or oil. The primary reason for treating boots is not to completely waterproof them, but to make them water repellent and to nourish the leather to prevent it from drying and cracking. Boots should be treated when they are new and on a regular basis to keep the leather supple.
Wet boots should be air-dried slowly or with low heat (put them in the sun). Don't try to dry boots quickly (for example, near a fire or a radiator). Different thickness of leather dry at different rates, which lead will to cracking and curling. While walking on the trail, the heat from your foot will help dry the boot.
At the end of the day, when you take off the boots, open them up as much as possible to help dry them out.
When you return from a trip, always clean your boots before you put them away, or the dirt will corrode the stitching at the seams. Use a stiff brush to remove the caked on dirt.
Store your boots in a cool, dry place to prevent mildew.
In order to plan the right equipment for a trip, you need to understand how your body reacts to the temperature and weather conditions you are likely to experience. Balancing the heat you are losing to the environment with the heat you generate from exercise and absorb from the environment is called thermoregulation or homeostasis.
According to the Outward Bound Wilderness First Aid Handbook, if you gain more heat than you lose, you experience a heat challenge. If you lose more heat than you gain, you experience a cold challenge. The ability to regulate body temperature is critical for preventing hypothermia and hypothermia.
One way to regulate body temperature is to wear the right clothing and layer your clothing properly. Clothing items should be kept versatile enough to meet various seasonal and weather conditions you may encounter. Since each person's body is different, experiment to determine your individual requirements.
If you combine different fabrics in multiple layers, you can maintain a comfortable body temperature without excessive sweating. Throughout the day you will need to "layer up" and "layer down" as temperature conditions and activity levels change. Through experimentation, you can determine which of the inner, middle, outer, and shell layers you require in various situations. Also, different parts of your body may require different layering combinations. The layers should not constrict your movement. The outer layer should not be too tight, since tight layers can compress the dead air space between layers below, thereby reducing their insulating value.
Without a doubt, the worst clothing you can bring on a trip to the wilderness is blue jeans. In most climates and environments, you should minimize your use of cotton clothing. Although cotton is comfortable to wear, cotton fibers absorb water and retain water. Once wet, cotton loses heat 25 times faster than dry clothing. Wet cotton clothing can be a significant factor in hypothermia. In warm weather, some cotton-synthetic blends can be used, since they dry faster than 100% cotton, and do not absorb as much water. Never wear cotton in cold conditions as a form of insulation. If you must wear a cotton-blend in warm weather conditions, make sure you bring additional non-cotton clothing in case of unexpected cool or wet weather.
When selecting a sleeping bag, you need to consider a number of factors. Unlike clothing layers, a sleeping bag doesn't offer much in the way of ventilation to control your body's temperature. Because of this, you may need more than one sleeping bag. For example you could have a heavy one for winter, and a light one for summer and fall.
Sleeping Bag Styles: The following are the three styles of sleeping bags you can find in outdoor
Rectangular - Simple rectangular bag style typically does not have a hood.
- A form-fitting bag with a hood. The bag tapers in width from the shoulders to the legs, with little room. Modified Mummy - A form-fitting bag with a hood. The bag tapers as does a mummy bag, but with more width.
Sleeping Bag Fit: Fit is important in a sleeping bag, as it is in clothing. In sleeping bags, you want the bag to snugly fit your body. If your bag is too big, you will have large areas where cold air can appear and you will be cold. If the bag is too tight it will restrict your movements and may compress the insulation to a point where it is not effective.
Features to look for in a sleeping bag:
A hood allows you to insulate your head to prevent heat loss.
The draft tube is an insulated tube that runs along the zipper line and prevents cold spots at the zipper.
A draft collar provides a closure at the neck area to prevent cold air entering.
Well-designed zippers will allow you to open and close your bag easily from the inside and outside.
Types of sleeping bag insulation:
There are different types of fills for a sleeping bag, but they can be broken down into two categories: synthetic and down. Insulation provides the loft in the bag, and it is loft that provides the amount of dead air space created by the fill. The dead air space provides the warmth.
Synthetic Fibers: Polarguard, and Quallofil.
These are normally used in sleeping bags and heavy outdoor parkas. The fibers are fairly efficient at providing dead air space. They are not as efficient an insulator as down, it is hard to compress into a small size, and it tends to break down over time and use, but they do not absorb water and will dry fairly quickly.
Super thin Fibers: Microloft, Primaloft, and Lite Loft. These are lightweight and efficient. They do not absorb water and dry fairly quickly. It can be stuffed down to a small size.
Down: This is very lightweight and thermally efficient. It can be stuffed down to a very small size, and has the best weight to warmth ratio available. It does absorb water to the point of being useless when wet, and it is very expensive. Some people may also be allergic to the feathers.
There are two basic types of backpacks: external frame and internal frame. The purpose of the frame is to transfer the majority of the weight of your equipment onto your hips rather than your shoulders. This then allows the strong muscles of your legs to carry the weight. The perfect load distribution is 80-90% of the weight on your hips and 10-20% on your shoulders. This split in weight also lowers your center of gravity, which makes you much more stable on the trail.
External Frame: Is good for carrying weight. It allows for an air space between your back and the pack so you do not sweat as much in the summer. This type of pack is usually cheaper than the internal frame, and is easier to find used. Most old external frame backpacks need a new hip belt, which can be replaced inexpensively. There is little flexibility in this type of frame.
Internal Frame: This type of frame is good for carrying lots of weight. It conforms to the body so that the weight is closer to your body, for superior balance on the trail, and off-trail winter travel. This is a comfortable pack if you must carry it for long periods. Because the bag and frame is directly against your back, sweating can be a problem for some people, but others do not notice much difference in strenuous conditions. It is more expensive than the external frame pack.
A good internal frame backpack can be adjusted to a hiker's height and width to a far greater degree than an external frame backpack. This may make it a better choice for growing Scouts, or when it is practical for a parent and child to use the same backpack on different outings.
Survival KitYou should always carry a knife, matches in a waterproof container, a compass, and a few band-aids. These items are normally enough under normal circumstances. However, in order to live up to our motto: "Be Prepared", you should carry a personal survival kit every time you go into the wilderness.
Here are some ideas that you might consider having in your personal kit:
1. Waterproofed matches
2. 50 yards or meters of 25 lb test fishing line
3. 10 fish hooks of various sizes
4. 2 small fishing lures
5. Pencil and small notebook
6. 5 yards or meters of snare wire.
7. Water purifying tablets
8. 2 folded 10 yard or meter strips of tinfoil
10. 50 feet or meters of parachute cord
11. Roll of surgical adhesive tape.
12. 10 band-aids
13. Roll of dental floss (to be used for making shelters)
15. 25 extra strength Tylenol (with permission of you parents)
16. 4 bouillon cubes
17. 10 hard glucose candies
18. 10 milk bags or other
19. Small penknife
These items should be packed into a small tin can (which can be used as a pot to boil water), and sealed with duct tape. The emergency kit should then be placed in the bottom of your backpack and left there.
An alternative method is to carry these items in a backpacking or "fishing" vest so that they are always with you in case you are separated from your backpack.
Recommendations For Personal Survival Kits
Two approaches to carrying your survival kit:
1. Scatter items throughout pockets: Small bulk and weight in any location.
2. Loss of one doesn't mean loss of all.
3. Less tendency to "rob-the-kit".
In a single small container:
1. Easier to check contents.
2. Easier to insure presence of kit.
3. Packed in plastic soap box, tobacco tin, etc.
Minimum essential items:
1. High quality pocket knife with at least two cutting blades.
2. Pocket compass.
3. Match safe with matches:
4. Plastic or metallic container
5. Waterproof kitchen-type matches
6. Waterproof matches rolled in paraffin-soaked muslin in an easily opened container such as a small soap box or toothbrush case.
8. Assorted fish hooks
9. Snare wire
10. Needle nose pliers
12. Small fire starter
13. Personal medicines
15. Insect repellent
Good to have items:
1. Pen-gun and/or flares
2. Colored cloth for signaling
3. Plastic water bottle
4. Saw wire
5. Safety pins
7. Small steel mirror
EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS KITS: 5 MAJOR FUNCTIONS
1) INSTANT BODY SHELTER
a. Plastic tube tent,
b. Large garbage bags,
c. Space Blankets,
d. Duct tape,
e. Plastic Tarps,
f. Chemical Hand Warmers
2) FIRE MAKING CAPABILITY
b. Metal Match and Cotton, or
c. Flint & Steel with Tender,
e. Cigarette Lighter
3) INDUCEMENT TO DRINK HOT LIDS
a. Container to heat water in
c. Milk and others
d. Cocoa Mix
e. Instant Soup Mixes
4) SIGNAL CAPABILITY
c. Bright Colored Cloth
e. Strobe light
f. Canned Smoke
5) FIRST AID KIT - Personal
BEYOND THESE ITEMS, ANYTHING ADDITIONAL WOULD BE PERSONAL PREFERENCE. ITEMS LIKE:
1) Tools : Hack Saw. Pliers , Screwdrivers
2) 50' Nylon Cord
3) Bailing Wire
4) Chemical Light sticks
7) Food Items
It is the responsibility of the Leader to ensure that groups are properly equipped before they set out on any hike or walking expedition.
Have you checked their route? There cannot be any short cuts.
Waterproof Coat & Pants
Survival Bag (Emergency shelter)
Food and drink
First Aid Kit
Flashlight (Torch) (Spare batteries and bulb)
Need not be expensive nor heavy, but should have a composition sole.
Ensure a good fit - too small will cramp - too big will blister.
Best fitted with one pair of Hill Socks.
Choose the lightest boots to do the job.
Modern boots require little or no breaking in - but traditional boots do. (leather ones).
DO NOT attempt a walk in new boots.
When wet, allow to dry naturally in an airy place. DO NOT use direct heat.
Wear your boots at home for a few hours each day so that you get used to them, and them to your feet!
If they feel uncomfortable when walking, apply a plaster (moleskin) BEFORE the blister forms.
Outer garments should be water-resistant. They must also have an added factor of being windproof also. Rain gear must be shower-proof.
Wear insulating clothing next to your skin.
Clothing to be strong but light, and must allow your body to breath.
This must be the correct tent for the conditions that could be expected. Lightweight for carrying, with flysheet and sewn in groundsheet. Items can be split between the Patrol. Preferably in bright colors: orange, etc.
1. Tunnel Tent. 2+ persons. Low wind factor.2. Dome Tent. 2 person. Can be unstable in high winds.3. Mountain Ridge Tent. 2 person. Low wind factor.
Map and Compass
Ensure that your Scouts are familiar with the Maps and compass you issue them with.
Provide a good quality liquid filled compass with plastic base-plate and rotating bezel.
Are your Scouts able to use them together and separately?
Provide a waterproof holder for the maps.
Ensure instructions/directions are precise, clear, and are understood by all who take part.
Issue a spare map and compass in case of emergency.
First Aid Kit. Well equipped and serviceable.
Whistle. Pea type best. (Football)
Flashlight/Torch. Issue with full set of spare batteries/bulbs.
Survival Bag. To act as an emergency shelter, as well as for suspect cases of hypothermia.
Correct type for the job
Well packed - nothing hanging from it.
Framed (inside or out) with hip straps.
Line with plastic bag to make extra waterproof.
Pack soft items against your body.
Small items - knife, gloves, whistle, sweets, etc., in pockets or under lid. Note that squirrels will eat though pack to get at snacks if left unguarded.
Waterproof clothing near to top when packed.
Fuel and stoves away from food in strong NYLON bags in an outside pocket. (fuel, etc., can penetrate polythene).
GOOD PACKING IS AN ART - PRACTICE IT.
"With careful packing and a sensible route, time given for rest, rhythmic pace, carrying a Rucksack can be a satisfying experience."
TO AVOID PROBLEMS.
Attempting too much before mind and body are ready for it.
Walking too fast.
Going downhill too fast.
Wearing too many clothes.
Straps badly fitted.
Unstable or unbalanced load.
Thermals if required.
First Aid Kit.