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Darmawan Ari Nugroho

Jadwal Kuliah Mikrobiologi Dasar

No 1

Isi Kuliah Pendahuluan : definisi dan aspek mikrobiologi; tujuan mempelajari mikrobiologi; sejarah mikrobiologi; mikrobiologi dan lingkungan; mikrobiologi sebagai ilmu dasar dan aplikasinya. Evolusi, sistematik, dan taksonomi mikrobia, penggolongan organisme dan taksonomi mikrobia : sistim 2-, 3-, 5- kingdoms; prokariot dan eukariot; taksonomi modern (pilogeni) Struktur sel : komponen-komponen sel dan fungsinya; perbedaan prokariot dan eukariot; membran sitoplasma, dinding sel, membran luar Gram negatif; Struktur internal (organel), flagella, pili, cilia, fimbriae, glycocalyx; bentuk dorman dari mikrobia (spora dan kista)



Jadwal Kuliah Mikrobiologi Dasar


Pertumbuhan mikrobia : pertumbuhan sel dan reproduksi; populasi mikrobia; cara pengukuran pertumbuhan; siklus pertumbuhan; factor lingkungan yang berpengaruh pada pertumbuhan (oksigen, pH, air/ aktivitas air, suhu Metabolisme : proses yang menghasilkan energi (energi kimiawi dan transfer energi, fosforilasi, jalur-jalur degradasi: nutrient komplek, glikolisa, regenerasi NAD, fermentasi dan respirasi); Proses yang membutuhkan energi (biosintesa komponen nitrogen, biosintesa karbohidrat, biosintesa lipida) Genetika mikrobia : Informasi genetik, replikasi, transkripsi, dan translasi



Lecture 1Introduction to microbiology What is microbiology Why study microbiology The Historical Foundations of Microbiology Abiogenesis Biogenesis The golden age of microbiology Anthrax & Bioterrorism

What is Microbiology?The science of microorganisms (very small, unicellular organisms) The discipline is just over a century old Has given rise to molecular biology and biotechnology

What are Microbes?

ProkaryotesNucleoid region (center) contains the DNA Surrounded by cell membrane & cell wall (peptidoglycan) Contain ribosomes (no membrane) in their cytoplasm to make proteins

EukaryotesCells that HAVE a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles Includes protists, fungi, plants, and animals More complex type of cells

OrganellesVery small (Microscopic) Perform various functions for a cell Found in the cytoplasm May or may not be membrane-bound

Sel prokariot dan eukariot

Why study Microbiology (1)?Microorganisms were the first life on earth Microorganisms created the biosphere that allowed multicellular organisms to evolve Multicellular organisms evolved from microorganisms >50% of the biomass on earth is comprised of microorganisms Microorganisms will be on earth forever

First microorganisms?

Earth formed

Cyanobacterial microfossils (oxygenic photosynthesis)

Formation of O2 atmosphere

algae, marine invertebrates

insects mammals











No free O2 Reducing environment


All cells of the present time organisms share a common ancestor

An evolutionary phylogenetic tree

Why study Microbiology (2)?Our understanding of life has arisen largely from studies of microorganisms (biochemistry and genetics) Studies of microorganisms continue to contribute to fundamental knowledge of life processes

Figure 1.4

Why study Microbiology (3)?Health Agriculture Food Environment

Endang S. Rahayu

Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Endang S. Rahayu

Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

The Historical Foundations of MicrobiologyThe Development of the Microscope The Debate over Spontaneous Generation Redi Needham Spallanzani Virchow Pasteur

History of MicrobiologyRobert Hooke- First person to peer into the microbial world, Hookeused compound lenses (1664) Anton van Leeuwenhoek- First true microbiologist, Dutch LeeuwenhoekSimple Microscope single lens microscopes capable of 300 to 500X (1632 1723) drew and published (Proceeding of the Royal Society in London) accurate pictures microscopic algae, protozoa, bacteria, demonstrated wee beasties (wee animalcules)

Endang S. Rahayu

Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Endang S. Rahayu

Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Spontaneous GenerationSpontaneous Generation- the idea that life arose from non-living matter - Abiogenesis Aristotle

(384-322 BC) believed some simpler invertebrates could arise by spontaneous generation

Spontaneous Generation Debate

Francesco Redi (1626-1697) (1626 belief

at the time- maggots spontaneously arose from timerotting meat that maggots were dependent on the presence of fly eggs and of rotting meat


Controversy ContinuesLeeuwenhoeks discovery added fuel to the controversy Some proposed microorganisms could arise from spontaneous generation even if higher organisms did not They

pointed out that boiled extracts of hay and meat could give rise to microorganisms

Spontaneous Generation (continued debate)In 1748, English Priest John Needham reported the results of his experiments boiled

mutton broth and then tightly sealed the flask eventually many of the sealed flask became cloudy with microorganisms he proposed that organic matter possessed a vital force that could give rise to life

Spontaneous Generation disproved

Lazzaro Spallanzani - improved on Needhams experimental design first- sealed seeds and water in glass flask second- boiled them no growth took place as long as the flasks remained sealed proposed that air carried microbes to the culture

Controversy finally settled1859, one of the fathers of modern microbiology, Louis Pasteur offered strong evidence against Spontaneous Generation Pasteur was a chemist by training but became interested in biology during his early studies on fermentations. At that time virtually nothing was known about microorganisms except that they existed (this was discovered by Anton van Leeuwenhoek using home-made microscopes in 1684). It was known that microorganisms could be found in decaying matter but it was not clear what role they were playing in the decomposition process.

Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) (1822"Do not put forward anything that you cannot prove by experimentation"

Drew out the necks of flasks so that they remained open to the air added broth and boiled it to destroy any microbes present flasks were incubated for months and remained sterileEndang S. Rahayu Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

Pasteurs Swan Neck Flask Experiment

The Golden Age of MicrobiologyFermentation and Pasteurization Pasteur

The Germ Theory of Disease Agostino

Bassi and Pasteur Joseph Liter Robert KochVaccination Edward Pasteur


Rapid Advances 1857 -1914Rudolf Virchow introduced the concept of biogenesis: living cells can arise only from preexisting cells (1857). Louis Pasteur demonstrated that microorganisms are in the air everywhere and offered proof of biogenesis (1861). Agostino Bassi (1835) and Pasteur (1865) showed a causal relationship between microorganisms and disease.

Pasteurs Contributions to Science

1800- French Government (Napoleon III) enlisted his help in their Wine Industry showed

the decline in quality was due to a contaminating microbe process of pasteurization

Pasteurs Contributions to ScienceRecognized that chickens became immune to a bacterial pathogen if injected with a weaken avirulent strain. Developed vaccines against rabies and anthrax

Pasteurs perplexing problem while working on spontaneous generation he experienced an anomaly no matter how long some flasks were boiled, they always produced growth German botanist-Ferdinand Cohn discovered the botanistexistence of heat resistant bacterial spores Pasteur reasoned that the flask that produced growth contained heat resistant bacterial spores

Endang S. Rahayu

Fak. Teknologi Pertanian UGM

English physicist John Tyndall dealt the absolute final blow to Spontaneous Generation and resolved Pasteurs problem, he demonstrated the dust did indeed carry microbes and if the dust were absent, the broth remained sterile. He developed the process of tyndallization which is fractional steam sterilization similar to the process we use today in the lab.

The Recognition of the Microbial Role in Disease

Agostino Bassi (1835) linked

a microorganism to disease

Pasteur (1865) disease

of silkworms

The Recognition of the Microbial Role in DiseaseJoseph Listersurgeon developed an antiseptic system of surgery and heat sterilized his instruments as well as using phenol with surgical dressing English

Robert Koch (1843 1910) 1910)Direct evidence of the role of bacterial in disease transmissionRobert Koch established a relationship between anthrax and the bacteriumbacterium- Bacillus anthracis Kochs techniques are still used today Today we know these as Kochs Postulates Received the Nobel prize 1905 for his work on tuberculosis

Kochs PostulatesOn the basis of these studies Koch proposed a series of criteria that should be used to establish the link between disease and microorganisms. These are now known as Kochs postulates. postulates. 1: Microorganisms must always be present in the infected animal and be absent in healthy individuals. 2: Pure cultures of the microorganism must be obtained from the diseased animal. 3: Such a culture must be capable, in itself, of causing disease itself, in healthy animals. 4: The microorganism should be re-isolated from the diseased reanimal and should retain the same properties in pure culture as the original pure culture.

Kochs Tuberculosis studies In 1881 Koch turned his attention to the study of a hum