Modu_2_ Konsep Dasar Sistem Cellular

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    Modul 2 Konsep Dasar Sistem Seluler

    TT 4113

    SISTEM KOMUNIKASI SELULER

    Jurusan Teknik Elektro Program StudiS1

    INSTITUT TEKNOLOGI TELKOM2008

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    Pokok Bahasan

    a. Arsitektur dan komponen jaringan seluler

    b. Frekuensi re-use,hand-off

    c. Modulasi, mutiple akses pada seluler

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    Arsitektur Dasar Sistem GSM

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    Air A

    O & M

    VLRMSC

    VLRMSC

    HLR

    Core Network Network Sub

    System

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    Arsitektur Jaringan GSM terdiri dari 3 bagian

    utama :

    1. Switching Subsystem (SSS) = NetworkSwitching Subsystem (NSS)

    2. Radio Subsystem (RSS) = Base Station

    Subsystem (BSS) & Mobile Station (MS)

    3. Operation & Maintenance System (OMS)

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    Fungsi Subsystem GSM

    OSS(Operation Subsystem)

    Administrasi Pelanggan

    Keamanan

    Operasi dan

    Pemeliharaan

    NSS(Network Switching Subsystem)

    Mobilitas Pelanggan

    Pengaturan Pensinyalan

    Pengaturan Komunikasi Pelanggan

    RSS(Radio Subsystem)

    BSC

    BTS

    Mengatur jaringan radio

    Kanal Radio

    Perangkattransmisi

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    GSM Interface

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    What makes cellular radio work? Frequency Reuse Channel Sharing (trunk effect) Handover/Handoff High Spectral efficiency

    Other related considerations Propagation Attenuation is like d- , 2

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    KAIDAH PENENTUAN NOMOR SEL.

    i , j = 0 , 1 , 2 , 3 , . . .

    i = 1

    = 2

    z6 0

    0

    s e l r e f e r e n s i

    i

    1 2 00

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    Signal-to-Interference Ratio.

    Consider closest co-channel cells:

    Ukuran Kluster:

    Co-channel ReuseDistance Ratio:

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    26

    7

    1

    2

    3

    4

    1

    2

    3

    4

    2

    7

    2

    3

    5

    6

    Dco

    R

    ( ) ( )

    ( )

    min 1 10 10

    1 10

    SIR log / 1 10 log 7 -1 dB

    = log / 1 7.78 dB

    co

    co

    K D R

    K D R

    =

    =

    2 2 N i ij j= + +

    / 3co

    D R N =

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    Kluster.

    K = 7

    1 kluster

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    Definisi

    Pengulangan frekuensi yang sama pada area

    yang berbeda di luar jangkauan interferensinya

    Reuse frekuensiF3F3

    F1

    F2JARAK BEBAS INTERFERENSI

    1

    2

    3

    1

    2

    3

    1

    2

    3

    Reuse frekuensi

    Frequency Reuse.

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    Latar Belakang Frequency Re-Use.

    1. Keterbatasan alokasi frekuensi2. Keterbatasan area cakupan cell (coverage

    area).

    3. Menaikkan jumlah kanal.

    4. Membentuk cluster yang berisi beberapa cell.

    5. Co-channel interference.

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    Frequnecy Reuse

    1

    2

    3

    1

    2

    3

    reuse

    1

    2

    3

    freq. reuse pattern / clusteK = 3

    1

    2

    3

    freq. reuse patter

    K = 4

    41

    2

    3

    4

    2

    3

    4

    1reuse

    reusereuse

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    Cluster - 1Cluster - 1

    44

    11 22

    33

    66 77

    55

    44

    11 22

    33

    66 77

    55

    44

    11 22

    33

    66 77

    55

    Cluster - 2Cluster - 2

    Cluster - 3Cluster - 3

    aa

    aa aa

    aa

    aa aa

    aa

    aaaa aa

    aa

    aa aa

    aa

    aaaa aa

    aa

    aa aa

    aa

    GSMCDMA

    Disain frekuensi sederhana

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    Cell Splitting

    before cell splitting after cell splitting

    To increase the capacity, the operator performs cell splittings

    1

    0

    2

    1

    0

    0

    1

    P

    P

    R

    R

    C

    C=

    =

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    Cell Splitting

    Diperlukan pada saat :

    - Kepadatan trafik dalam cell meningkat.

    - Kanal yang ada tidak mampu melayani.

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    S I E M E N S S I E M E N S

    MSC/VLR

    BSS BSSaddressed bySignaling Point

    Code

    Location Area

    Location AreaCell:

    CGI = MCC/MNC/LACODE/CI

    Location Area:

    LAI = MCC/MNC/LACODE

    Subscriber Data

    LAI

    Subscriber Data

    LAI

    addressed by

    Signaling Point

    Code

    Cell

    Cell

    Cell

    Cell

    Cell

    Cell

    CellCell

    Cell

    Cell

    Cell Cell

    Location Area

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    LA 1

    VLRMSC

    LA 5

    LA 4

    LA 3LA 2

    Location Area and Cell Identity

    CI 1

    CI 2CI 3

    D fi i i H dO

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    Definisi HandOver.

    HandOver adalah proses perpindahan kanal trafik user pada saat user aktiftanpa terjadi pemutusan hubungan.

    Penyebab HandOver sel :

    - RF kriteria (RF Level dan Kualitas Hubungan).- Network kriteria (masalah trafik load,O&M).

    Jenis HandOver :

    I. Internal HandOver (Dikendalikan oleh BSC)1. Intra-cell HandOver: pemindahan hubungan ke kanal yang berbeda pada satu BTS

    yang sama.

    2. Inter-cell HandOver: pemindahan hubungan antar BTS yang berbeda dalam satuBSC.

    II. External HandOver (Dikendalikan oleh MSC)1. MSC intra HandOver: pemindahan hubungan yang terjadi antar BSC dalam satu

    MSC.

    2. MSC inter HandOver : perpindahan hubungan yang terjadi pada 2 MSC yg berbeda.

    pergerakan MS

    HO

    F1

    HO

    F2

    Sel #1 Sel #2 Sel #3

    F3

    F1 ke F2 F2 ke F3

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    HandOver.

    Normalized Distance from Base A

    0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0

    ReceivedPowerdBm

    -130

    -120

    -110

    -100

    -90

    -80

    -70

    -60

    base A base B

    from base C

    received powerfrom base A

    received power

    from base B

    received powerfrom base C

    Handoff or Handover isa process of transferring amobile station from onechannel or base station toanother one.

    Margin: = Pr,HO - Pr,min- Too big Margin --> HO trafficburden- Too small Margin -->higherDrop Call MAHO (Mobile Assisted Hand

    Over) in GSM Soft HO in IS-95

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    HandOver Pada FDMA/TDMA.

    BS1 BS2

    A B

    RS

    L

    Level at B

    Level dimana terjadi HO

    time

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    Handover Types

    Intra-cell

    BSCBTS

    f 1, TS 1

    f 2, TS 2

    Intra-BSS

    BSC

    BTS

    BTS

    MSC

    Handover

    performed

    Intra-MSC

    MSC

    BSS

    BSS

    Inter-MSC

    MSC - BMSC - A

    MSC - C

    basic

    subsequent

    MSC

    Handover

    performed

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    Measurement:

    connection quality & strength:

    strength of serving BTS &

    surrounding BTSs

    HandoverDecision

    MS

    Measurement:connection quality & strength,

    distance measurement (TA)

    BTS

    Measurement report

    Timing Advance,

    Power control

    BSC

    HO

    decision

    Measurement value processing

    (averaging, limit values,..)

    Evaluation list

    (suitable BTSs for HO...)

    Initiation of HO type

    HandoverBSC/

    MSC

    Measurement

    report

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    BTS

    BTS

    BTS

    BTS

    BTS

    BTS

    BTS

    MSC (A)

    VLR

    Handoverexample

    MSC (B)VLR

    BSC

    BSC

    BTS

    Level:cell A

    cell B

    cell C

    BTS

    BSC to MSC (A):

    HO please!

    cell BMSC (B)

    A

    B

    C

    1. BSC: HO necessary

    2. Parallel connection setup

    3. MS changes phys. channel

    4. Original connection released

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    S I E M E N S S I E M E N S

    S I E M E N S S I E M E N S

    S I E M E N S S I E M E N S

    MSC/VLR

    Handover

    Cell

    Global

    Identity

    (CGI)

    Roaming

    SIM

    old LAI