KINETIKA REAKSI

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    KINETIKA KIMIA

    BAMBANG WIDIONO

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    KINETIKA KIMIA ? "how fast do reactions go?"

    Untu a!a ? #anfaat $ Mata u%iah ter ait ? #ate#ati a&

    stoi io#etri& ' $

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    Understanding how chemical reactors work lies at the heart of almost every chemical processing operation.

    Design of the reactor is no routine matter, and many alternatives can be proposed for a process. Reactor design uses information,

    knowledge and experience from a variety of areas -thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer, and economics .

    CR is the synthesis of all these factors with the aim of properly designing and understanding the chemical reactor.

    What is Chemical Reaction Engineering (CRE) ?

    (he#ica%

    !rocess

    )aw

    #ateria%

    *e!aration

    +rocess

    *e!aration

    +rocess

    +roducts

    B, !roducts

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    T,!ica% (he#ica% +rocess

    +h,sica% treat#ent ste!s

    (he#ica% treat#ent ste!s

    +h,sica% treat#ent ste!s

    )aw #ateria%s

    - !re.treat#ent - se!arations

    - !urifications

    +roducts

    )EA(TION ENGINEE)ING

    Unit O!erations

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    Boo

    - O.Levenspiel: / (he#ica% )eaction Engineering 0

    - S.Fogler: /E%e#ents of (he#ica% )eaction Engineering0

    - 1 M *#ith 2 / (he#ica% Engineering

    Kinetics / - *tan%e, M Wa%as 2 / (he#ica% )eaction

    Engineering 3and4oo 0

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    !ersa#aan rea si tida da!at #en5awa4 6 isu !enting

    78 *e4era!a ce!at rea si 4er%angsung 98 Bagai#ana onsentrasi rea tan dan !rodu

    saat rea si se%esai 68 A!a ah rea si 4er5a%an dengan sendirin,a

    dan #e%e!as an energi& atau ah ia

    #e#er%u an energi untu 4erea si?

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    Kineti a i#ia

    - *tudi tentang ece!atan rea si i#ia dan fa tor.fa tor ,ang #e#!engaruhin,a serta #e anis#e rea si

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    (%assification of )eactions

    Man, wa,s of c%assification Most usefu% . according to nu#4er : t,!es of !hases

    3o#ogeneous2 reaction ta es !%ace in 7 !hase3eterogeneous2 reaction )E;UI)E* at %east 9 !hases

    +hase < unifor# +&T& (o#!osition

    According to the use = not use of cata%,stNoncata%,tic (ata%,tic

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    (%assification of )eactions

    3o#ogeneous

    3eterogeneous

    Noncata%,tic (ata%,tic

    Most gas.!hase reactions Most %i>uid.!hase r s

    @ast reactions such as 4urning of a f%a#e

    ) s in co%%oida% s,ste#s

    En ,#e and #icro4ia% r s

    Burning of coa%

    Attac of so%ids 4, acids

    Gas.%i>uid a4sor!tion with reaction

    A##onia s,nthesis O idation of a##onia !roduce to nitric acid

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    Menge s!resi an a5u )ea si

    t x

    t t x x

    ∆ ∆=−

    −== !"

    !"

    waktu#erubahan posisi#erubahan

    $erak%a&u

    t t t ∆ ∆−=−

    −−=

    = '()onst*')onst')onst

    waktu#erubahan 'ikonsentras#erubahanreaksi%a&u

    !"

    !"

    [ ] [ ] t

    B t

    A Laju

    ∆ ∆=∆

    ∆−=

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    3ow can reaction rate 4e e !ressed ?

    - *e%ect one reaction co#!onent for consideration and define the rate in ter#s of this co#!onent& i 8

    - If the rate of change in nu#4er of #o%es of this co#!onent due to reaction is dN i /dt & then the rate of reaction in its Carious for#s is defined as fo%%ows2

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    )eaction )ate Definition

    - the rate at which a s!ecies %ooses its che#ica% identit, !er unit Co%u#e

    @or f%uid s,ste#s . 4ased on unit Co%u#e of f%uid = unit Co%u#e of reactor

    (time) fluid)of (volume formed imoles

    dt dN

    V r ii ==

    ! (time)reactor)of (volume

    formed imoles dt

    dN V

    r i r

    i ==′ !

    @or gas.so%id s,ste#s . 4ased on unit Co%u#e of so%id

    (time) solid)of (volume formed imoles

    dt dN

    V r i

    S i

    == !++

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    )eaction )ate Definition

    @or 9 f%uid s,ste#s = gas.so%id s,ste# . 4ased on unit interfacia% surface

    (time)(surface)

    formed imoles

    dt

    dN

    S r iS i ==

    !

    @or f%uid.so%id s,ste#s . 4ased on unit #ass of so%id

    (time) solid)of (mass

    formed imoles

    dt

    dN

    W

    r iwi == !

    +++ ir iS

    S i

    w ii r V r V Sr Wr V r ====

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    *!eed of (he#ica% )eactions

    ce%%u%ar r s8

    watertreat#ent !%ants

    hu#an at rest

    wor ing hard

    gases in !orous cata%,st !artic%es

    7 . 7 .6 7 .9 87 7 7 7

    roc et engines

    r i ''

    = moles of i disappearing (m 3 of thing) (s)

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    )eaction )ate F e a#!%e 7

    The roc et engine2

    - 4urning a stoichio#etric #i ture of fue% %>8 h,drogen : o ,gen$

    - (,%indrica% co#4ustion cha#4er2 < Hc#& D< c# - +roduces 7 J g=s e haust gases

    )eaction rate of h,drogen and o ,gen?

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    )eaction rate F e a#!%e 7

    dt

    dN

    V r H H

    "

    "

    !=−

    dt dN

    V r OO

    "

    " !=−

    3m L D

    V "!"!.(.* /

    (0.* /

    ""

    === π π

    O H O H """ " ! →+

    smol mol !

    s! O H

    s

    ! 10

    (1*!2

    (1*! 2 ! 2 " ==

    ?

    s mol

    used H 03"

    s mol

    used O 43"

    sm moles

    s mol

    r H ⋅

    ×==− 4

    /!2." 0

    "!"!. !

    " sm moles

    s mol

    r O ⋅

    ×==− 4 /!/!.!

    4 "!"!. !

    "

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    )e%ationshi! 4etween rates of

    reaction F e a#!%e 9 The reaction carried out in a reactor2

    If at a !articu%ar !oint& the rate of disa!!earance of A is 7 #o%=d# 6=s& what

    are the rates of B and (?

    " B A 4" →+

    4"

    " B A r r r =−=− sdm

    mol sdm

    mol r r A B

    ⋅ =

    ⋅ =−=− 44 !"

    ! 4

    " 4

    sdm mol

    sdm mol r

    r A" ⋅

    = ⋅

    =−=− 44 "" !

    "

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    Kece!atan rea si - Kece!atan rea si die s!resi an 2

    To increase the rate 2 - increasing the surface area of so%ids$.this a%%ows for #ore co%%isions and giCes

    #ore #o%ecu%es the right geo#etr,

    - increasing the te#!erature .this giCes #ore #o%ecu%es the right energ, a%so ca%%ed the actiCation energ,& Ea$

    - increasing the concentration of gases and so%utions$.this a%%ows for #ore co%%isions and #ore correct geo#etr,

    - using a cata%,st .he%!s #o%ecu%es achieCe the correct geo#etr, 4, !roCiding adifferent wa, to react

    - The !h,sica% state so%id& %i>uid or gas$ of a reactant

    - Nature of reactants . Na is #ore reactiCe than (a it #ore easi%, %oses its outer e%ectron$

    rate

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    Luas Permukaan Sentuhan - *uatu rea si #ung in 4an,a #e%i4at an

    !erea si da%a# 4entu !adatan - Menga!a e!ingan ,ang %e4ih ha%us 4erea si

    %e4ih ce!at? +ada ca#!uran !erea si ,ang heterogen& rea si han,a ter5adi !ada 4idang

    4atas ca#!uran ,ang se%an5utn,a ita se4ut4idang sentuh8 O%eh arena itu& #a in %uas 4idang sentuh #a in ce!at 4erea si8 1adi #a in ha%us u uran e!ingan at !adat #a in %uas !er#u aann,a8

    - Artin,a #a in eci% u uran& #a in %uas !er#u aann,a& #a in 4an,a tu#4u an& #a in ce!at ter5adin,a rea si

    h ff f

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    The effect of increasing te#!erature

    - When the te#!erature is raised the added heat energ, shows itse%f in the for# of increased !artic%e inetic energ,8 In the gra!h a4oCe& two distri4ution curCes are shown for a %ower=higher te#!eratures& T7=T9& and it is assu#ed that the area under the who%e curCe is the sa#e for 4oth te#!eratures i8e8 the sa#e nu#4er=!o!u%ation of #o%ecu%es8

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    - (o#!aring lower temperature T1 with higher temperature T2 & ,ou can see that as the te#!erature increases & the !ea for the #ost !ro4a4%e KE is reduced& and #ore significant%, with the rest of the KE distri4ution& #oCes to the right to higher Ca%ues so #ore !artic%es haCe the highest KE Ca%ues 8

    - Now& if w