Kajian Pemberantasan Korupsi di Finlandia

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Pemberantasan Korupsi di Finlandia Satria Hangga Nugraha

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Pemberantasan Korupsi

Pemberantasan Korupsidi Finlandia

Satria Hangga Nugraha

Quick facts

What makes Finland and other Scandinavian Countries cleaner than most countries?Law enforcementInvolving public participation and transparency mechanisms such as disclosure of informationIntegrity system function relatively well Strong commitment to anti-corruption by political leadersFreedom of the press is positively correlated with control of corruptionGovernment openness and effectiveness, civic activism and social trustStrong transparency and accountability mechanismGeneral administrative culture of Finlandand social factorsCorrelation between the general standard of living on one hand, and the level of corruption on the other (either public official and society)

Source: transparency.org

Penegakan Hukum

No.UnsurKeterangan1.Undang-UndangKorupsi tidak diatur di UU khusus. Namun terdapat di Undang-Undang Prosedur Administrasi (Administrative Procedure Act) dan Undang-Undang Hukum Pidana (Penal Code).

2.Badan Penegak HukumTidak ada lembaga pemberantasan korupsi yang khusus, namun beberapa instansi yang menangani korupsi dan membantu peningkatan pelayanan publik yaitu:National Bureau of InvestigationNational Audit OfficeOmbudsmanCriminal Investigation of CorruptionNational Council for Crime PreventionFinancial Supervision Authority

AkuntabilitasAudit Internal pengendalian administratif didesentralisasikan ke berbagai institusi pemerintah, kedudukannya semi-otonomi dan fungsinya sebagai lembaga penelaah mekanisme pengendalian internal

Audit Eksternal The National Audit Ofce of Finland (NAOF), seperti BPK di Indonesia yang mandiri, memiliki tugas untuk melaksanakan audit eksternal dengan melakukan audit keuangan, audit kepatuhan, audit kinerja, audit yang kebijakan fiskal dan audit lainnya menggabungkan metode yang berbeda.

Integrity Sistem

Integritas yang tinggi membuat pegawai pemerintah di Finlandia menjunjung tinggi reputasi. Hancurnya reputasi akibat perbuatan tercela biasanya berakhir dengan keluarnya pegawai tersebut dari pekerjaan sebagai pegawai pemerintah. Rasa malu juga tumbuh di kalangan pegawai pemerintah. Kasus mundurnya Anneli Jaatteenmaki adalah contohnya.

TransparansiThe broad openness of public administration has always been a fundamental principle in Finland. Decisions must be public, and they are open for criticism by other public officials, by the public and the media. In Finland, everyone has the constitutional right.Source: Corruption and the Prevention of Corruption Ministry of Justice Finland

General administrative culture of FinlandThe structure of the Finnish administrative system is relatively low (i.e., with few levels of bureaucracy), with a considerable degree of autonomy on the local, municipal level. Already at an early stage during Swedish rule, the civil service secured a relatively strong position in society, and public officials were widely regarded with respect.

the general standardof living and the level of corruption (public official)a public officials bread may be thin, but at least it is long

- Old Finnish Proverb-Public Officials salaries may not have been high but were nonetheless adequate. But there is good job security for public officials to counterbalance the not-so-high earnings.

Source: Corruption and the Prevention of Corruption Ministry of Justice Finland

the general standardof living of Finnish

Ranked second for gender equality index, eleventh on the UNDPs Human Development Index 2008, high standard of living, small gap on The level of wages in both the public and the private sectors, few people live in poverty, Finlands welfare society are a free comprehensive school education, higher education, and basic health care for everyone. The state takes care of the unemployed and other disadvantaged groups.Source: Corruption and the Prevention of Corruption Ministry of Justice Finland

Social Factors

The educational system in Finland has been identified as one of the most effective in the world. Such factors suggest that the members of the Finnish public tend to have a relatively good capacity to understand, exercise and protect their rights. Thus, most members of the public at least in theory should be able to identify incidents of corruption when they encounter these, understand that these are not acceptable, and be able to bring the matter to court or otherwise have the matter reviewed. Finlands society can be described briefly as democratic and egalitarian.

Civic ActivismPart of the democratic tradition concerns the importance of local government. Traditionally, many decisions affecting the day-to-day life of citizens, including regarding taxes, roads, utilities and social services, have been made locally. This has given people a clear incentive to become involved in local government, or at least to keep a watchful eye on local decision makers.

Source: Corruption and the Prevention of Corruption Ministry of Justice Finland

Freedom of Press

In general, the media has a key role in the prevention of corruption. They can raise questions and start discussions on transparency and justness, dealing with different solutions. The role of the media is perhaps particularly strong in Finland, where newspaper readership and the use of the internet are among the highest in the world.

Social TrustDengan pemerintahan yang bersih dan budaya masyarakat (pemimpin) yang taat aturan memunculkan social trust pada kepemerintahan FinlandiaSource: world bank blogWhy dont Finns worry about locking their bikes on a busy Helsinki Street? Why do Finnish skateboarders who advocate anarchy politely abide by traffic laws? Why indeed is Finland so uncorrupt?

Namun.. Adakah kasus korupsi di Finlandia?ADA

Case of Ex Mayor of the City of Espoo, Marketta KokkonenMarketta Kokkonen, and Olavi Louko, the director of Espoos Technical and Environment Services, received bribery charges linked to major construction companies in 2010. State demanded Louko to pay back 7.500 while each public presentation of a construction decision is in value of several millions of euros. Louko has responsibility of the construction and environmental protection.

Case of Ex major of Vantaa, Jukka PeltomkiJukka Peltomki is accused in 2013 of 500,000 benefit from Forma Futura in 2006-2011. Forma Futura has planned buildings for VVO, NCC, YIT and Citycon.

Case of Ilkka KanervaIlkka Kanerva, National Coalition Party was convicted in April 2012 for accepting bribes. He withdrew from Turku council in May 2012.

Case of Sport Corruption (RoPS)In 2011 several football players were charged for bribery. Singaporean match-fixer Wilson Raj Perumal was accused for agreed matches in 20082011. Total 11 players were charged.

Tax avoidance case on tax haven countryBased on data of the Finnish tax agency, government has collected unpaid tax more than 10 million until 2013. In Sept/Oct 2013, Liechtenstein bank accounts include funds of Casimir Ehrnrooth (UPM (HS 21.9.2013) family major owners in e.g. construction YIT, Jaakko Pyry, Guggenheim Helsinki Plan, exploding rocks), Bertel Paulig (coffee, spices) and a construction company owners in Turku.