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Transcript of Kajian Mandiri - Beranda Mandiri Diplomasi Ekonomi Asia... · Kementerian Luar Negeri, seperti...

Kajian Mandiri: Indonesia dan Asia Tengah: Sebuah Upaya Penguatan

Diplomasi Ekonomi

Pusat Pengkajian dan Pengembangan Kebijakan Kawasan Asia-Pasifik dan Afrika

Badan Pengkajian dan Pengembangan Kebijakan

Kementerian Luar Negeri Republik Indonesia

2016

Kajian Mandiri: Indonesia dan Asia Tengah: Sebuah Upaya Penguatan Diplomasi Ekonomi

Pertama diterbitkan di Indonesia Tahun 2016 oleh:

Pusat Pengkajian dan Pengembangan Kebijakan Kawasan Asia-Pasifik dan Afrika

Badan Pengkajian dan Pengembangan Kebijakan

Kementerian Luar Negeri Republik Indonesia

Jalan Taman Pejambon no.6

DKI Jakarta, Jakarta Pusat 10110

Indonesia

Email: aspasaf.bppk@kemlu.go.id

Editor: Mohamad Hery Saripudin M.A., et al.

Cover Design: Haidi N.H

Layout: Muhammad Iqbal Maulana

2016 Pusat Pengkajian dan Pengembangan Kebijakan Kawasan Asia-Pasifik dan Afrika

mailto:aspasaf.bppk@kemlu.go.id

Fakta dan Opini yang diekspresikan dalam Kajian Sepenuhnya Merupakan

Hasil Interpretasi dan Tanggung Jawab Tim Peneliti dan Tidak Serta

Merta Mencerminkan Pandangan Ataupun Kebijakan Kementerian Luar

Negeri Republik Indonesia

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DAFTAR ISI

DAFTAR ISI..i

DAFTAR GRAFIK ............................................................................................................. iv

DAFTAR TABEL..v

KATA PENGANTAR .......................................................................................................... vi

RINGKASAN EKSEKUTIF .................................................................................................. x

BAB I PENDAHULUAN ...................................................................................................... 1

A. LATAR BELAKANG .................................................................................. 1

B. RUMUSAN MASALAH ............................................................................. 4

C. TUJUAN DAN SASARAN KAJIAN ............................................................. 4

D. METODE PENGKAJIAN .......................................................................... 5

E. SISTEMATIKA PENULISAN ...................................................................... 6

BAB II SELAYANG PANDANG KAWASAN ASIA TENGAH .................................................... 7

A. PENDAHULUAN ...................................................................................... 7

B. PEMETAAN GEOPOLITIK KAWASAN ASIA TENGAH .............................. 10

C. KERJA SAMA REGIONAL DI ASIA TENGAH ........................................... 15

C.1. EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION (EAEU) .......................................... 15

C.2. ECONOMIC COOPERATION ORGANIZATION (ECO) ........................ 19

C.3. SHANGHAI COOPERATION ORGANISATION (SCO) ........................ 22

C.4. ASIA COOPERATION DIALOGUE (ACD) ......................................... 24

C.4. CENTRAL ASIA REGIONAL ECONOMIC COOPERATION (CAREC) ... 27

D. KONEKTIVITAS KAWASAN ASIA TENGAH ............................................. 30

D.1. KONEKTIVITAS DARAT ............................................................... 30

D.2. KONEKTIVITAS UDARA ............................................................... 33

D.3. KONEKTIVITAS LAUT .................................................................. 36

E. KESIMPULAN ....................................................................................... 39

BAB III POTENSI EKONOMI KAWASAN ASIA TENGAH ..................................................... 41

A. ENERGI DAN MINERAL ........................................................................ 41

B. PERDAGANGAN.................................................................................... 44

C. INVESTASI ........................................................................................... 46

D. PARIWISATA......................................................................................... 47

E. KESIMPULAN ....................................................................................... 49

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BAB IV EVALUASI KERJA SAMA EKONOMI INDONESIA-ASIA TENGAH .......................... 51

A. PERKEMBANGAN HUBUNGAN INDONESIA DAN ASIA TENGAH ............ 51

B. PERKEMBANGAN KERJA SAMA EKONOMI INDONESIA - ASIA

TENGAH....58

B.1. PERDAGANGAN .......................................................................... 58

B.2. INVESTASI .................................................................................. 74

B.3. KERJA SAMA PARIWISATA .......................................................... 83

B.4. KERJA SAMA ENERGI ................................................................. 86

C. ANALISIS SWOT ................................................................................... 90

C.1. STRENGTHS ................................................................................ 90

C.2. WEAKNESSES ............................................................................. 91

C.3. OPPORTUNITIES .......................................................................... 92

C.4. THREATS .................................................................................... 93

D. KESIMPULAN ....................................................................................... 94

BAB V LESSONS LEARNED DARI NEGARA-NEGARA ROLE MODEL .................................. 95

A. KOREA SELATAN .................................................................................. 95

A.1. HUBUNGAN KOREA SELATAN DAN ASIA TENGAH ...................... 95

A.2. ENERGI ...................................................................................... 97

A.3. PERDAGANGAN DAN INDUSTRI .................................................. 98

A.4. FREE TRADE AGREEMENT......................................................... 100

A.5. INVESTASI ................................................................................ 101

A.6. TRANSPORTASI ......................................................................... 102

A.7. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (R&D) ...................................... 103

B. MALAYSIA .......................................................................................... 103

B.1. HUBUNGAN MALAYSIA DAN ASIA TENGAH .............................. 103

B.2. PERDAGANGAN DAN INVESTASI .............................................. 105

B.3. ENERGI .................................................................................... 107

B.4. PARIWISATA ............................................................................. 107

B.5. KONEKTIVITAS KE ASIA TENGAH ............................................. 108

C. VIETNAM ............................................................................................ 109

C.1. HUBUNGAN VIETNAM DAN ASIA TENGAH ................................ 109

C.2. PERDAGANGAN DAN INVESTASI .............................................. 110

C.3. ENERGI .................................................................................... 111

C.4. PERHUBUNGAN DAN PARIWISATA ........................................... 112

C.5. FREE TRADE AGREEMENT EAEU -VIETNAM .............................. 113

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D. IRAN .................................................................................................. 114

D.1. PERKEMBANGAN HUBUNGAN IRAN DAN ASIA TENGAH .......... 115

D.2. PERDAGANGAN ........................................................................ 115

D.3. KONEKTIVITAS ......................................................................... 117

E. KESIMPULAN ..................................................................................... 119

BAB VI KESIMPULAN DAN REKOMENDASI ................................................................... 121

A. KESIMPULAN ..................................................................................... 121

B. REKOMENDASI KEBIJAKAN ............................................................... 124

B.1. JANGKA PENDEK ..................................................................... 125

B.2. JANGKA MENENGAH ................................................................ 129

B.3. JANGKA PANJANG .................................................................... 130

C. CATATAN PENUTUP ........................................................................... 130

DAFTAR PUSTAKA ........................................................................................................ 132

LAMPIRAN I. KEGIATAN PELAKSANAAN KAJIAN ........................................................... 137

LAMPIRAN II. INFORMASI DASAR NEGARA-NEGARA ASIA TENGAH ............................. 145

LAMPIRAN III. TIM PENYUSUN ..................................................................................... 163

LAMPIRAN IV. FOTO PELAKSANAAN KAJIAN ................................................................ 170

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DAFTAR GRAFIK

Grafik 1. Peta Negara-negara Asia Tengah 2

Grafik 2. Danau Issyk-Kul, Kyrgyzstan 7

Grafik 3. Peta Negara Anggota EAEU 16

Grafik 4. Jaringan Jalan dan Kereta Api Negara Angota EAEU 18