Kajian Efisiensi dan Efektivitas Kelembagaan Pemerintah

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Disampaikan Untuk Pusat Kajian Kinerja Kelembagaan, Lembaga Administrasi Negara RIJakarta, 2 April 2012

Transcript of Kajian Efisiensi dan Efektivitas Kelembagaan Pemerintah

  • 1. Kajian Efisiensi & Efektivitas Kelembagaan Pemerintah Disampaikan untuk Pusat Kajian Kinerja Kelembagaan, LAN-RI Jakarta, 2 April 2012
  • 2. Efektivitas Kelembagaan Dua Dimensi Pengukuran Efektivitas: o Makro, menggunakan indikator makro reformasi kelembagaan pemerintah. o Mikro (satuan organisasi), menggunakan indikator mikro penataan kelembagaan K/L/Pemda. o Efektivitas pada skala makro bukan agregasi dari efektivitas pada skala mikro. Filosofi Reformasi Kelembagaan: o Efektivitas & efisiensi kelembagaan Efektivitas pencapaian tujuan dan sasaran pemerintah Peningkatan kesejahteraan dan pelayanan publik.
  • 3. Reformasi Kelembagaan: proses menerjemahkan nilai2 konstitusi menjadi nilai2 kesejahteraan melalui rekayasa kelembagaan kelembagaan harus menjadi instrumen kesejahteraan yg didesain sejalan dengan arah & target yg diamanatkan konstitusi. Rekayasa Kelembagaan: Pendekatan Politik (Regulasi): UU 39/2008, Perpres 47/2009, Perpres 24/2010, dll. Pendekatan Teknokratik: rasio jumlah lembaga dengan APBN; rasio jumlah lembaga dengan jumlah PNS; analisis urgensi; analisis efektivitas & efisiensi organisasi, dll.
  • 4. Urusan yg Nomenklaturnya Luar Negeri Disebutkan Dalam Dalam Negeri UUD 1945 Pertahanan (3 Urusan) Agama Pertambangan Hukum Energi Keuangan PU Keamanan Transmigrasi Urusan yg HAM Transportasi URUSAN Ruang Lingkupnya Pendidikan Informasi Disebutkan Dalam Kebudayaan KomunikasiPEMERINTAHAN Kesehatan Pertanian (46 Urusan) UUD 1945 Sosial Perkebunan (25 Urusan) tenaga kerja Kehutanan Industri Peternakan Perdagangan Kelautan Perikanan PPN Investasi Aparatur Neg. Koperasi Urusan dalam Set. Negara UKM rangka Penajaman BUMN Pariwisata Koordinasi & Sinkronisasi Pertanahan PP Program Pemerintah Kependudukan Pemuda (18 Urusan) LH Olah Raga Ilmu Pengethn Perumahan Teknologi PKDT
  • 5. Penafsiran dari kadar Urgensi: Pola 1: Urusan yg nomenklaturnya disebutkan dalam UUD 1945 mutlak (requirement, conditio sine qua non). Pola 2: Urusan yg ruang lingkupnya disebutkan dalam UUD 1945 wajib (obligatory). Pola 3: Urusan dalam rangka penajaman koordinasi program dapat dibentuk (optional). Pola 4: tidak jelas pengaturannya kementerian koordinator (3 buah). Penafsiran dari aspek kuantitas: Di Jepang, jumlah kementerian adalah 17 (2007) dan mengecil menjadi 12 (2010). Indonesia menggunakan pola maksimal, yakni 34. Perbandingan kementerian Pola 3 dengan Pola 1 + 2 saat ini 11 : 20. Sebaiknya, pola 3 cukup 1/4 atau bahkan 1/5 dari Pola 1 + 2, karena hanya bersifat penajaman.
  • 6. UU No. 19/2008 sbg tonggak penataan kelembagaan harus diikuti dengan penataan lembaga selain kementerian secara komprehensif, mencakup: LPNK, LNS, Sekretariat Lembaga Negara, Kejagung/TNI/Polri, Perwakilan RI di LN, BI dan UMN, dll. Lembaga yg menjalankan urusan penajaman koordinasi tidak harus diwadahi dalam bentuk kementerian, namun bisa juga dalam wadah LPNK atau LNS sbg executing agency. Restrukturisasi Kementerian yg ada saat ini. Merger dengan LPNK atau LNS yg relevan.
  • 7. Effective Organization Keterpenuhan unsur organisasi. Ukuran masing-masing unsur. Kualitas masing-masing unsur. Visi & Misi Struktur SDM Tusi/Prog. Anggaran Output/ & Keg Outcome
  • 8. Effective Organization Effective & Efficient Organization Adaptive, Empowered innovation-friendly Inspiring culture employees structure 3 + 3 component Shared values; Encourage, energize, People: Top management: team- Inspiring vision; coach ; leading innovation; Cross- Inspirational Delegate authority; functional team: mapping leadership; Provide resources; innovation road; Empowered Inspirational Provide incentives and employees: driving innovation. environment; growth opportunities. Ecosystem: Vision & strategy for Relentless innovation. innovation; Process, practice & system supporting innovation; culture inspiring innovation.
  • 9. Losing Organization
  • 10. Losing Organization FUZZY VISION: corporate vision and mission dont inspire people; lack of strategic alignment; people dont know where the organization is going and what it is trying to achieve in the future. LACK OF LEADERSHIP SKILL: fear of change; leaders lack entrepreneurial spirit; leadership style on the part of management is either too directive or too hands-off; managers do not lead and dont manage change, they just administrate and micromanage; weak leadership development program. DISCOURAGING CULTURE: corporate culture does not inspire people; no shared values; lack of trust; blame culture; focus on problems, not opportunities; employees are not energized; people dont have fun at work; diversity is not celebrated; failures are not tolerated; people lose confidence in their leaders and systems. HIGH BUREAUCRACY: bureaucratic organizational structures with too many layers; high boundaries between management layers; slow decision making; too close monitoring of things and subordinates; too many tools and documents discouraging creative thinking; bureaucracy is tolerated.
  • 11. Losing Organization LACK OF INITIATIVE: employees are not empowered; poor motivation and encouragement; people do not feel their contributions make a difference; management fails to engage the organization effectively; people work defensively and not creatively, they do their job, and nothing more. POOR VERTICAL COMMUNICATION: people have no clue of the big picture and do not feel that their contributions are important; too much uncertainty; people dont know what top-managers are thinking and planning. POOR CROSS-FUNCTIONAL COLLABORATION: functional mindset; lack of cross-functional goals and cross-functional collaboration spirit; functional, no enterprise-wide business process management; no cross-functional management committees; lack of or powerless cross-functional teams. POOR TEAMWORK: no organizational commitment to team culture; lack of shared & worthwhile goals; weak team leaders; team members who dont want to play as part of a team are tolerated; teams are too large. POOR IDEA AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: cross-pollination of ideas is not facilitated; no creativity, idea and knowledge management strategies and systems; "know-it-all" attitude; "not invented here syndrome.
  • 12. Toyota WayI. Having a long-term philosophy that drives a long-term approach to building a learning organization Base your management decisions on a long-term philosophy, even at the expense of short-term financial goals.II. The right process will produce the right results Create a continuous process flow to bring problems