Instruksi Dan Petunjuk Pembelajaran Lisan
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INSTRUKSI DAN PETUNJUK PEMBELAJARAN LISANCLASSROOM LANGUAGE
Berikut ini diberikan dalam bentuk bagan-bagan berbagai instruksi, petunjuk, serta larangan dalam bahasa Inggris untuk mengatur kegiatan pembelajaran yang seharusnya dilalui siswa agar tercipta pembelajaran yang effektif. Fungsifungsi yang tercantum di sini terkait dengan berbagai kegiatan, yaitu:1. membuka pelajaran 2. mengecek kehadiran 3. mengatur kondisi fisik kelas 4. mempersiapkan kelas 5. memasuki tahapan-tahapan pembelajaran 6. menggunakan alat Bantu 7. membentuk kelompok 8. mengatur cara kerja: kelompok, individu, berpasangan 9. mendisiplinkan siswa 10. menutup pelajaran atau mengakhiri tahapan pembelajaran. Agar terbiasa menggunakan classroom language yang tepat maka sebaiknya ungkapanungkapan yang diberikan dapat secara aktif diterapkan dalam proses belajar mengajar. Jika guru selalu menggunakan ungkapan-ungkapan tersebut dalam proses pembelajaran maka siswa juga akan terbiasa untuk memahami, menanggapi, dan akhirnya menggunakan berbagai ungkapan tersebut. Perlu dicatat bahwa tanggapan terhadap instruksi dan larangan adalah berupa tindakan. Namun dalam kegiatan komunikatif lisan, seringkali suatu tindakan didahului atau disertai tanggapan lisan, seperti: Yes, alright Yes, I will Me! No, alright Alright No, Ill do it Yes, of course Certainly, Mr. Ahmad This bit here? Here do you mean? Yes, OK No, OK
Siswa hendaknya dibiasakan untuk menerapkan ungkapan-ungkapan tersebut untuk menanggapi instruksi dan larangan guru. 1. Beginning the lesson Well, did you have a good weekend? Did you enjoy your holiday? Did anyone do anything interesting during the weekend? What did you do last night? What did we talk about last lesson? more about that? Can Could the football you tell me what the party the program was like?
ask OK, can you talk to
each other your neighbor your friend about .?
Just a minute Wait a second Not you again
Rina, Budi, Ahmad,
youve just said something. let someone else have a turn. youve said a lot today.
Yes, Fajar? Go on, Tuti.
2. Checking attendance Youve been absent for 3 days, havent you?
Youve missed 6 lessons, havent you? You were away yesterday, werent you? You were absent on Friday, right? What was the matter? Have you been ill? Sorry to hear that. Oh? Oh, dear. Expected responses: Well, I had a bad cold. I had an accident. catch up Youll have to Well, Ali, ask your friends wont you? to help you. to tell you what weve done. Tell me about it. Can you tell me about it? Please will you tell me about it?
Come and see me after the lesson, OK? Stay behind after the lesson and Ill see you. Late comers: Hello, Hari, youre late today. Good morning, Rio. Youre rather late again. Did you miss the bus or forget the time? Did you get up late or was the bus late? Did you get stuck in the traffic? Did you set out late? today, Well, never mind it doesnt matter just for once, this time, but next time try to be on time.
you shouldnt really
done that. come so late.
ought to should
come on time, really. told me if you had to go to a doctor. asked someone to tell me. set out earlier
youd better try not to youd better not you mustnt could you please try not to
forget(it) be late
again. next time. next lesson.
Sit down now please. Would you sit down, then, please. Go and sit down, then. Right! Back to Lets get on with Lets get back to Right. well go on with 3. Physical conditions in the classroom Its rather hot in this room, isnt it? Its too stuffy in here, isnt it? Its very dark in here, isnt it? the register. the lesson. what we were doing. our work.
Its terribly untidy in here. Its much too noisy for you to hear me. tidy up settle down Please be quiet open the window would Please could can will could you Please would you will you go and ask fetch get someone somebody Pak Hasan to fix to mend the light? the window? you someone turn switch put would you? will you? could you?
the light those lights the fan
Good. What a nice clean classroom we have now. Well done, thank you.
4. Getting organized can Please, could will
you someone clean
the blackboard? the whiteboard?
Would you mind cleaning the board, please? Just clean Leave this that half. section. Thank you.
part. Dont clean bit. side.
Could you clean
the top the bottom
rub Please could you wipe off
the words the sentences on
the left the right at
the top? the bottom?
Rub Clean Leave this on
everything off it all
Thanks. please. Thank you.
straightening the chairs moving up a bit Now, would you mind moving back a bit sitting in groups of 4 making a bigger space here please?
straighten your desks Will Would Could you all two both three tidy your desks put all your books/papers/files straight put that rubbish in the bin move your desk this way make a gangway through here please?
in up Could you Would you I want you to move your chair(s) desk(s) table(s) along back forward this way that way turn your chair round please?
3? arrange yourselves Could you possibly arrange your chairs to make to form in groups of 4? 5? 6?
Right! Now! Alright! OK you just only need your
Science books blue books exercise books notebooks and pencils workbook out.
Put all your other books and papers away. You only need the sheets I told you to get out. You dont need the books. Not those. Not that book. The other one. The red one.
No others! Thats all. Ready? Lets go on. Ready? Now we can start.
I have some
papers new books
to give out to hand round
Please will you
give these out, Susan? help Susan?
back Pass these papers this work along round please.
Take one and pass them on. Hand these papers round, please.
Theyre for you to keep. You may have them to keep.
Im afraid you cant keep them. I want these back, please. I want them back at the end of the lesson. You must give them in again so please dont write on them. 5. Introducing different stages of the lesson Right. Who can remember what we did last lesson? Can anyone tell me what we talked about last time? go over it again, Lets review it, do it once more, shall we? Alright? OK?
How about What about
doing it again quickly? reviewing it? having another practice?
going over it again?
First Then Later(on) In a few minutes Half way through the lesson Near the end of the lesson At the end of the lesson When weve finished this Now, Right now were going to I want you to perhaps well if theres time well if youve been good, well practice this. learn something new. listen to a lecture. do some reading. do some note taking. have a break for a minute or two. do a simple experiment.
6. Using teaching aids overhead projector? the Could Would Will you someone somebody go and fetch bring me find get out that a these some box of ...? folders of cards? sticks? beaker? thermometer?
fix could you OK, Ill stick hang them straight? high enough?
give Could you hand pass these
worksheets cue cards boxes out please?
One Two Three
each per pair. between two.
the jar. Take Have a good look at the plants. the picture.
What Why Where How do you think ?
on the left on the right Look at Tell me about What about the people the buildings the scenery the surroundings in the middle in the center at the top at the bottom in the top right-hand corner. in the bottom left corner. of the poster. of the picture.
Now lets Im going to
rub the picture off. take it down.
now and put
on my desk. away.
Im going to Could anyone
collect the picturesput the laboratory equipments
back in the drawer. away? back in the cupboard?
7. Dividing the class up I want you in Were going to work in Can you get into pairs groups please. In twos, with your neighbor. In fours. In groups of four.
Turn round Move forward Can you face and
face look at
your neighbor. the person next to you. the people behind you? in front of you?
Look, you Why dont you
move up and make a three. turn round and join in with them.
Look, you Why dont you
move up and make a three. turn round and join in with them.
What about How about Would you mind
joining in with them? going to sit there, next to him? moving along a bit and working with them.
Id like you to would you
discuss the problems. fill in the table based on the results of the experiment.
youre going to
do the exercises.
a group of 4. Id like you to make a group of 3. a group of 5.
That was good. OK. Stop now. Not bad. Well done.
Silence! Quiet please! Thats enough. Lets hear
what some of you have done. this group. how have you been getting on.
In chorus: all of you you all I want Id like everybody the whole class this half that half one of you just one person to fill in the table. correct my statement. read the instruction carefully. discuss the effects of global warming. solve the problems.
Accompanying expression: Dont put your hands up.
Altogether. Everybody! Listen! Ready? Everyone can try.
Come on. Yes, you as well. very c