Filsafat fkm-2-sejarah-filsafat (1)

of 31 /31
SEJARAH FILSAFAT Trias Mahmudiono, S.KM, MPH Departemen Gizi Kesehatan FKM UNAIR

Embed Size (px)


sejarah perkembangan ilmu filsafat

Transcript of Filsafat fkm-2-sejarah-filsafat (1)

  • 1. SEJARAH FILSAFAT Trias Mahmudiono, S.KM, MPH Departemen Gizi Kesehatan FKM UNAIR

2. Sejarah Ilmu Pengetahuan Pemikiran filsafat banyak dipengaruhi oleh lingkungan Pd dasarnya filsafat (Barat, India, Cina) muncul sifat yg religius Di Yunani (mitos), India (Weda, Hindu), Cina (confusius) Barat: mitos diganti rasio India: tidak pernah lepas induknya Agama HinduPembagian periodisasi filsafat Barat zaman (Kuno, Abad Pertengahan, Modern, Kini) Pembagian periodisasi filsafat Cina zaman (Kuno, Pembaruan, Neo-Konfusionisme, Modern) Pembagian periodisasi filsafat India periode (Weda, Wiracarita, Sutra-Sutra, Skolastik) Periode Filsafat Yunani sangat penting menjadi acuan 3. Historisitas Sejarah filsafat barat dibagi menjadi tiga, yaitu zaman Yunani Kuno dengan ciri pemikirannya bersifat kosmosentris Zaman Pertengahan dengan ciri pemikirannya yang bercorak teosentris Zaman Modern dengan ciri pemikirannya yang bercorak antroposentris Zaman Kontemporer dengan ciri pemikiran logosentris. 4. FILSAFATTHEOLOGI19MILMU CABANGAGAMA FILSAFAT20M FENOMENOLOGI STRUKTURALISME NEOPOSITIVISME18MABAD KONTEMPORERRASIONALISME EMPIRISME KRITISISME IDEALISME POSITIVISME14-15MAUFKLARUNG14MABAD MODERNRENAISSANCE3SM - 6MLOGOSMITOS6SMABAD TENGAHANCILLA THEOLOGIAEYUNANI - KUNOFILSAFATFAKTOR HEURISTIKBIOLOGI ASTRONOMI MATEMATIKA FISIKA KIMIA SOSIOLOGIKOMPUTER PARIWISATA DLL. 5. YUNANI KUNO MITOS..... - 6SMLOGOS3SM - 6M 6. FILSAFAT Phylo = menyenangi Sophia = bijaksana MITOLOGI Dongeng, Takhayul Pertanyaan timbul (ingin tahu) DE-MITOLOGI Dipikirkan (secara kritis) LOGOS (ilmu) 7. Apakah ARCHE dari segala sesuatu yang ada ? Thales (624 - 548 SM)AIR Anaximander (610 - 518 SM)APEIRON Anaximanes (590 - 518 SM)UDARA Phytagoras (580 - 500 SM)BILANGAN Demokritos (460 - 370 SM)ATOM 8. SOCRATES (469 - 399SM) DialektikaPLATO (427 - 347 SM) RasionalismeARISTOTELES (384 - 322 SM) Metafisika Logika Biologi Empirisme 9. Abad 6 SM 0 M Periode Filsafat Yunani Ahli filsafatnya Thales Menggunakan pola deduktif Kemunculan ilmu sangat berkembang Abad 0 6 M Periode Kelahiran Nabi Isa Pertentangan Gereja Filsafat mengalami kemunduran Raja membatasi kebebasan berfikir 10. ABAD PERTENGAHAN ANCILLA THEOLOGIAE DOGMA DOGMA DOGMA DOGMADOGMAABAD KEGELAPAN BAGI ILMU PENGETAHUANDOGMA DOGMADOGMA DOGMA 11. PERMULAAN ABAD MODERNRENAISSANCE 14 - 15 MASEHIAUFKLARUNG (PENCERAHAN) 18 MASEHILEONARDO DA VINCI COPERNICUS KEPLER GALILEO GALILEI FRANCIS BACONVOLTAIRE JJ. ROUSSEAU MONTESQUIEU IMMANUEL KANT 12. AGAMA DAN FILSAFAT MULAI DI PISAHKAN AGAMA DI DASARI KEYAKINAN (KEIMANAN) FILSAFAT DI DASARI OLEH OLAH PIKIR (SEKULARISASI) RASIONALISME EMPIRISME KRITISISME IDEALISME POSITIVISMETUMBUH ILMU-ILMU CABANG (MENINGGALKAN FILSAFAT) BIOLOGI ASTRONOMI MATEMATIKA FISIKA KIMIA SOSIOLOGI 13. SKEMA HUBUNGAN FILSAFAT DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN 14. perkembangan Abad 6 M ditandai dengan runtuhnya mitologi dan dongeng-dongeng. Abad 6-16 M ditandai dengan kuatnya doktrin teologis atau anciella theologia. Filsafat digunakan untuk memperkuat keyakinan agama. Abad 16 zaman modern yang ditandai dengan renaissans merebaknya ilmu pengetahuan. Abad 20 atau zaman pasca renaissans ditandai dengan menguatnya pemikiran pasca modernis 15. Mythology Aim of early Greek philosophers is to find natural rather than supernatural explanations for natural practices 16. Natural Philosophers Nature of the physical world Science Thales 625BC 545BC Greek colony in Asia Minor first know philosopher everything from water single basic substance Anaximander 610-546 BC all created things are limited that which comes before and after must be boundless - basic stuff could not be as ordinary as water Anaximenes 570-526 BC source of all things must be air of vapour 17. Democritus 460-370 BC everything was built up of tiny invisible blocks (p. 43) Each block was eternal and immutable firm and solid not all the same different shapes and sizes unlimited number Called atoms, un-cuttable (p. 43) 18. How accurate is Democritus theory to what we know today? Atoms theory still exists P. 84 the lego horse Platos idea of the model plan World of ideas 19. Athens circa 450 BC Cultural center of the Greek world. (p. 61) Focus changed from natural philosophy to the individual and the individuals place in society. (p. 62) Democracy evolved Art of rhetoric saying things in a convincing manner. (p. 62) 20. Prominent Philosophers Sophist a wise and informed person (p. 62) man and his place in society (p. 62) No absolute norms for what was right or wrong. (p. 63) Protogoras (485-410 BC) Man is the measure of all things (p. 62) 21. Socrates 470-399 BC there are norms wrote nothing down greatest influence on western thinking taught in the city squares known to us through Platos writings we must use our reason to grasp philosophical truths p. 65 feigned ignorance Socratic irony 22. Socrates died because of his convictions 23. Plato 428-347 BC Pupil of Socrates theory of ideas Myth of the cave denies the reality of the natural world We must become enlightened 24. Myth of the Cave From The Republic What we take in with our senses is not real, but rather a poor copy of it we see only shadows imprisoned by our senses the shadows are less real than the actual Should take in the world intellectually Ignorance is likened to imprisonment 25. Plato and Aristotle 26. Aristotle 384-322 BC student of Plato Elemental theory fire, water, wind, earth Rejected Plato's world of ideas Senses are important Women as inferior 27. Medieval/Baroque Machiavelli 1469-1527 control populace politics, government - two books, The Prince is still used today in politics (Stalin really liked The Prince) Spinoza 1632-1677 - in God (one substance) tolerance and free thought Rationalist Mystic Hobbes 1588-1679 materialist natural world political thinking - The Leviathan The value or worth of a man is, as of all things, his price. 28. THOMAS HOBBES 1588-1679 Alam semesta, segala yang ada, bersifat korporeal, atau badani, yang memiliki dimensi besaran panjang, lebar, dan kedalaman Yang ada hanyalah materi, Setiap benda bergerak, termasuk manusia, adalah mesin Proses mental merupakan gerakan materi yang ada dalam kepala manusia. Hobbes terpesona oleh gerak, khususnya setelah mengunjungi Galileo. 29. Locke 1632-1704 father of empiricism and liberalism, education. All mankind is good and ought not to harm one another. No mans knowledge here can go beyond his experiences. Hume 1711-1776 nothing is certain (complexity), empiricist, take actions because of morals Leibniz 1646 1716 rationalist borrowed reality There is a reason why every fact is as it is and not otherwise. calculus (Leibniz or Newton) 30. Existentialism/Modernism Kierkegaard 1813-1855 father of existentialism individual finds own identity a problem mystery of own existence deBeauvoir - 1908-1986 French existentialist Sartre - feminism Sartre 1905-1980 fate doesn't exist man is what he conceives himself to be Hell is other people. Descartes 1596-1650 father of modern philosophy method of doubt - Cogito ergo sum - I think therefore I am. Camus 1913-1960 French writer absurd that humans demand significance in an indifferent universe - Man is the only creature who refuses to be what he is. 31. Senses or Reason Empiricists believe that we learn through our senses; we learn based on observation, experience ; we are born with a clean slate (tabula rasa) Rationalists believe one has to have an understanding of ones self to learn Know thyself; senses offer a limited world; rely on truths, logic and intuition Kant synthesized the two need reason and the senses to learn