faal hematopoiesis

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<ul><li><p>hematopoiesis</p><p>Dr. Damajanty Pangemanan, MKes</p></li><li><p>Sistem hematopoietikSel stem (progenitor awal), menyokong hematopoiesisColony forming unit (CFU), pelopor yang selanjutnya berkembang dan berdeferensiasi dalam memproduksi selFaktor regulator yang mengatur agar sistem berlangsung teratur</p></li><li><p>Stem selSel induk yang mempunyai kemampuan berdeferensiasi menjadi beberapa turunan, membelah diri dan memperbaharui populasi sel stem sendiri dibawah pengaruh faktor pertumbuhan hematopoietik</p></li><li><p>HematopoiesisPembentukan dan perkembangan dari sel-sel darahDimulai pada awal kehidupan embrio dan berlangsung sampai dewasaSecara garis besar perkembangan ini dibagi dalam 3 periode :Hematopoiesis yolk sac Hematopoiesis hatiHematopoiesis medular</p></li><li><p>Hematopoiesis yolk sacSel darah dibuat dari jaringan mesenkim 2-3 minggu setelah fertilisasiSel eritrosit dapat diidentifikasi dalam yolk sac pada masa gestasi 16 hariSel induk hematopoiesis mulai berkelompok dalam hati janin pada masa gestasi 5-6 minggu</p></li><li><p>Hematopoiesis hatiBerasal dari sel stem pluripoten yang berpindah dari yolk sacPerubahan tempat hematopoiesis ini mempunyai hubungan dengan regulasi perkembangan oleh lingkungan mikro, produksi sitokin dan ekspresi pada reseptorMasa gestasi 9 minggu, hematopoiesis sudah terbentuk dalam hati</p></li><li><p>Hematopoiesis hatiYang terutama adalah eritropoiesisMencapai puncak pada masa gestasi 4-5 bulan kemudian mengalami regresi perlahanPada pertengahan kehamilan, tampak pelopor hematopoietik terdapat di limpa, thimus, kelenjar limfe dan ginjal</p></li><li><p>Hematopoiesis medularPeriode terakhir pembentukan sistem hematopoiesisDimulai sejak masa gestasi 4 bulanRuang meduler terbentuk dalam tulang rawan dan tulang panjang dengan proses reabsorbsi</p></li><li><p>Hematopoiesis medularMasa gestasi 32 minggu lahir semua rongga sum-sum tulang terisi dengan jaringan hematopoietik yang aktif dan sum-sum tulang berisi sel-sel darahPada perkembangan selanjutnya fungsi pembuatan sel darah diambil oleh sum-sum tulangSel mesenkim yang mempunyai kemampuan membentuk sel darah menjadi kurang, tapi tetap ada dalam sumsum tulang, hati limpa,kelenjar getah bening dan dinding usus dikenal sebagai RES</p></li><li><p>Hematopoiesis medularPada bayi dan anak hematopoiesis yang aktif terjadi pada sumsum tulang, termasuk bagian distal tulang panjangOrang dewasa normal, hematopoiesis terbatas pada vertebra (tulang belakang),costa, sternum, pelvis, skapula, skull ( dan jarang berlokasi pada humerus dan femur)</p></li><li><p>Hematopoiesis in a fetus</p></li><li><p>Hemopoiesis in the embryo takes place in the yolk sac, liver and spleen, and bone marrow </p></li><li><p>Hematopoiesis in a fetus</p><p>Sel darah pertama yang dibentuk adalah eritrosit Pada 2-8 minggu pertama sel eritrosit primitif ditemukan di yolk sac</p></li><li><p>Hematopoiesis in a fetusSelama 2 bulan pertama hematopiesis extrameduler berkembang, dan yolk sac berpindah ke liver Granulocytes also appear in the liver during the 2nd month The spleen also contributes to hematopoiesis at this point.</p></li><li><p>Hematopoiesis in a fetusDuring the 4th month medullary hematopoiesis develops when the bone marrow begins to contribute to hematopoiesis.During the 5th month bone marrow takes over as chief production site and continues throughout life.</p></li><li><p>Hematopoiesis after birth</p><p>At birth the liver and spleen have ceased production of blood cells and hematopoiesis is occurring in the red bone marrow of almost every bone (axial and appendicular skeletons).</p></li><li><p>Hematopoiesis after birthAs a child develops and matures (beginning at 4 years) the hematopoietic activity begins to move to the axial skeleton (flat bones, skull, ribs, sternum, clavicle, vertebrae, pelvic bones) and proximal ends of long bones (humerus and femur). This move is completed by age 18</p></li><li><p>Hematopoiesis after birthRemaining marrow cavities are replaced with fat (yellow bone marrow).By age 40 the marrow in sternum, ribs, pelvis and vertebrae is composed of equal amounts of hematopoietic tissue and fat.</p></li><li><p>Hematopoiesis after birthExtramedullary hematopoiesis may occur under two conditions:If the bone marrow is no longer functional When the bone marrow is not able to keep up with the demand for blood cells When extramedullary hematopoiesis occurs, the liver and spleen will become enlarged.</p></li><li><p>The Blood Cells</p><p>red blood cells (RBCs) or erythrocytes white blood cells (WBCs) or leukocytes platelets or thrombocytes (actually cytoplasm fragments) </p></li><li><p>Blood cell development in adults</p><p>All blood cells develop from pluripotent stem cells that are found in the red bone marrow. Stem cells are able to proliferate as well as differentiate into the different types of blood cells. They are also able to renew themselves.</p></li><li><p>Blood cell development in adultsThe pluripotent stem cell is the progenitor of two multipotential stem cell lines: the myeloid and the lymphoid lines. Myeloid stem cells are precursors of granulocytes, monocyte, RBCs and platelets; lymphoid stem cells are precursor of lymphocytes </p></li><li><p>Control</p><p>Many Growth Factors (also known as cytokines and interleukins and hormones) precisely regulate all stages of the process. For example.1.CSF - colony stimulating factors function at various stages of development of blood cells. There are several CSFs, each stimulating the development of different types of cells</p></li><li><p>2. Interleukins - protein molecules that work with the CSFs to stimulate particular cell lines to proliferate and differentiate. 3. Erythropoietin (EPO) the hormone produced by kidney to stimulate RBC production (regulates erythropoiesis)4. filgrastim: is produced by stromal cells and regulates granulopoiesis5. thrombopoietin: is produced by the liver, and regulates platelet production</p></li><li><p>They have many different effects:</p><p>proliferationdifferentiationmaturationfunctional activationprevention of apoptosis (programmed cell death)</p></li><li><p>Pools of hematopoietic activity 1. Bone marrow Stem cell pool - comprised of multipotential stem cells and unipotential committed colony-forming units (CFUs), all of which are morphologically unidentifiable.Proliferating pool - cells are capable of DNA synthesis and are undergoing mitosis.Storage pool - mature cells that are stored for later release into the peripheral blood and cells that are maturing. They are no longer capable of mitosis.</p></li><li><p>2. Peripheral blood</p><p>a. Circulating pool functioning cells in circulation, in transit to tissues. The blood we draw for evaluation comes from this pool. The circulating pool is found more towards the center of the tubular blood vessel.</p></li><li><p>b. Marginating pool Primarily a term used for white blood cells. The cells are adhered to walls of blood vessels and are ready to move through into the tissues (diapedesis). There is constant movement between the circulating and marginating pools. At a given time the ratio of cells in the circulating pool to the cells in the marginating pool is 50:50. Neutrophils move freely between the two pools.</p></li><li><p>The two pools of circulation in peripheral blood </p></li><li><p>Hemopoiesis </p></li><li><p>*</p></li><li><p>Hematopoiesisfrom pluripotent stem cells tomature, differentiated, cellular effectors of immunityand more</p></li><li><p>Th- Helper CellB CellMacrophageNeutrophil (alternative path)Mast CellPlateletsTc Cytotoxic CellDendritic CellNeutrophilEosinophilBasophilErythrocyte</p></li><li><p>Click HERE to return to menu</p></li><li><p>Dendritic cell pathway</p></li><li><p>Sel dendritikSel dengan bentuk tidak teraturDitemukan pada jaringan , pada kulit disebut sel Langerhans epidermalBerperan sebagai presentasi antigen ke sel T dan aktivasi limfosit</p></li><li><p>Pluripotent Stem CellThis is the undifferentiated precursor to all of the blood cells, red and white, and other immune effector cells, and platelets.</p></li><li><p>Myeloid Stem Cells daughters of the Pluripotent Stem Cells, these are the progenitors of a host of specialized white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs) and the blood platelets which are crucial to blood clotting.</p></li><li><p>Granulocyte -Monocyte Progenitor cells can differentiate into monocytes or neutrophils</p></li><li><p>Monocytes act as antigen presenting cells (APCs), as Antibody-Dependent Cytotoxic Cells (ADCC) , and promote inflammation.</p></li><li><p>Dendritic Cell like the macrophage, this cell is phagocytic it inhabits the tissues looking for foreign intruders to devour.</p></li><li><p>Macrophage pathway</p></li><li><p>Monosit/macrofagMerupakan sel darah terbesarMengandung granul dan nucleus bentuk lobularMempunyai aktivitas baktericidalMonosit bermigrasi dari sirkulasi kejaringan seperti sel Kupfer di heparBerperan penting pada imunitas spesifik dan non spesifik</p></li><li><p>Pluripotent Stem CellThis is the undifferentiated precursor to all of the blood cells, red and white, and other immune effector cells, and platelets.</p></li><li><p>Myeloid Stem Cells daughters of the Pluripotent Stem Cells, these are the progenitors of a host of specialized white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs) and the blood platelets which are crucial to blood clotting.</p></li><li><p>Granulocyte -Monocyte Progenitor cells can differentiate into monocytes or neutrophils</p></li><li><p>Monocytes act as antigen presenting cells (APCs), as Antibody-Dependent Cytotoxic Cells (ADCC) , and promote inflammation.</p></li><li><p>Macrophagefunctions as antigen presenting cell (APC), in inflammation, and in ADCC (antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity</p></li><li><p>Click HERE to return to menu</p></li><li><p>leukositSel darah putihKonsentrasi : 4800 10.800/mm kubik darahBerfungsi sebagai alat pertahanan tubuh terhadap bakteri, virus, parasit, racun dan sel tumorTdd :Granulosit (neutrofil, basofil dan eusinofil)Agranulosit (limfosit dan monosit)</p></li><li><p>Granulopoiesis</p><p>Granulocytes include 3 types of cells:</p><p>neutrophils or polymorphseosinophilsbasophils</p></li><li><p>Granulopoiesis</p><p>Granulocytes and a fourth cell type - the monocyte are made in the bone marrow from a common precursor cell, the mixed myeloid progenitor cell or CFUGEMM.</p><p>This process takes between 6-10 days in the marrow. Once released from the marrow, into the marrow sinusoids, and from there into the peripheral blood, these cells circulate for only 6-10 hours. They then take up residence in tissue where they live for 4-5 days before they die.</p></li><li><p>NeutrofilJumlahnya paling banyak dari jenis leukosit (50-70%)Fungsi : fagositik, terutama terhadap bakteri</p></li><li><p>Neutrophil Pathway</p></li><li><p>Pluripotent Stem CellThis is the undifferentiated precursor to all of the blood cells, red and white, and other immune effector cells, and platelets.</p></li><li><p>Myeloid Stem Cells daughters of the Pluripotent Stem Cells, these are the progenitors of a host of specialized white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs) and the blood platelets which are crucial to blood clotting.</p></li><li><p>Granulocyte -Monocyte Progenitor cells can differentiate into monocytes or neutrophils</p></li><li><p>Monocytes act as antigen presenting cells (APCs), as Antibody-Dependent Cytotoxic Cells (ADCC) , and promote inflammation.</p></li><li><p>Neutrophilsfunction in antimicrobial activity, inflammation response, and antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC)</p></li><li><p>Click HERE to return to menu</p></li><li><p>Alternative Neutrophil pathway</p></li><li><p>Pluripotent Stem CellThis is the undifferentiated precursor to all of the blood cells, red and white, and other immune effector cells, and platelets.</p></li><li><p>Myeloid Stem Cells daughters of the Pluripotent Stem Cells, these are the progenitors of a host of specialized white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs) and the blood platelets which are crucial to blood clotting.</p></li><li><p>Granulocyte -Monocyte Progenitor cells can differentiate into monocytes or neutrophils</p></li><li><p>Neutrophilsfunction in antimicrobial activity, inflammation response, and antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC)</p></li><li><p>Click HERE to return to menu</p></li><li><p>Eosinophil Pathway</p></li><li><p>EosinofilMerupakan 2-5% dari leukositFungsi sebagai fagosit yang lemahBerperan juga pada imunitas parasit dan reaksi alergi</p></li><li><p>Pluripotent Stem CellThis is the undifferentiated precursor to all of the blood cells, red and white, and other immune effector cells, and platelets.</p></li><li><p>Myeloid Stem Cells daughters of the Pluripotent Stem Cells, these are the progenitors of a host of specialized white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs) and the blood platelets which are crucial to blood clotting.</p></li><li><p>Eosinophil Progenitorwill produce eosinophils</p></li><li><p>Eosinophilthese cells are active in the immune response to asthma, allergies, and parasites.</p></li><li><p>Click HERE to return to menu</p></li><li><p>Mast Cell Pathway</p></li><li><p>Pluripotent Stem CellThis is the undifferentiated precursor to all of the blood cells, red and white, and other immune effector cells, and platelets.</p></li><li><p>Myeloid Stem Cells daughters of the Pluripotent Stem Cells, these are the progenitors of a host of specialized white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs) and the blood platelets which are crucial to blood clotting.</p></li><li><p>Basophil Progenitor a product of the specialization of Myeloid stem cells, this cell will produce either Mast Cells or Basophils</p></li><li><p>Mast Celllike the related basophils these cells function in inflammation and allergic response. When mature, they become granulated and are found in tissues, not in peripheral blood.</p></li><li><p>Click HERE to return to menu</p></li><li><p>Basophil pathway</p></li><li>basofilJumlah yang ditemukan dalam darah sangat sedikit, sekitar </li><li><p>Pluripotent Stem CellThis is the undifferentiated precursor to all of the blood cells, red and white, and other immune effector cells, and platelets.</p></li><li><p>Myeloid Stem Cells daughters of the Pluripotent Stem Cells, these are the progenitors of a host of specialized white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs) and the blood platelets which are crucial to blood clotting.</p></li><li><p>Basophil Progenitor a product of the specialization of Myeloid stem cells, this cell will produce either Mast Cells or Basophils</p></li><li><p>Basophilthis IgE responsive cell is characterized by cytoplasmic granules which, when released, function in destruction of parasites and also in allergic reactions. The cell releases histamine and platelet activator and other chemical signals.</p></li><li><p>Click HERE to return to menu</p></li><li><p>Platelet pathway</p></li><li><p>Megakaryopoiesis</p><p>Platelets are produced from very large cells called megakaryocytes which develop in the bone marrow from megakaryoblasts which, like other cells in the marrow, are derived from a haemopoietic stem cell.The nucleus in a megakaryocyte reduplicates, but the cell does not divide so eventually a very large cell with multiple nuclear lobes is formed. This is referred to as "endomitosis".</p></li><li><p>Each megakaryocyte makes approximately 4000 platelets and this process takes about 10 days. The megakaryocyte straddles the marrow sinusoids and little bits of cytoplasm - the platelet - are extruded through the sinus wall and into the blood stream.</p><p>The normal lifespan of a platelet is 7-11 days</p></li><li><p>Pluripotent Stem CellThis is the undifferentiated precursor to all of the blood cells, red and white, and other immune effector cells, and platelets.</p></li><li><p>Myeloid Stem Cells daughters of the Pluripotent Stem Cells, these are the progenitors of a host of specialized white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs) and the blood platelets which are crucial to blood clotting.</p></li><li><p>Megakaryocytefragments into subcellular pieces called platelets</p></li><li><p>Plateletsare blood elements without nuclei that circulate and are involved in blood clotting and inflammation.</p></li><li><p>Click HERE to return to menu</p></li><li><p>Erythrocyte Pathway</p></li><li><p>ErythropoiesisErythropoiesis, or the pro...</p></li></ul>