Chap 3-PROF EDY

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    FOM^ 6'2 % Jgpri`|fpjig'

    Rifh jpvlca jv bipo figvpr|fpjig emplrjmcv /l'k' ajcc! rlfcmempjig emplrjmcv* ir ~mrp ia lgkjgllrjgkvpr|fp|rl /l'k' f|p vci~l# ai|g`mpjig ! p|gglc*'Mffir`jgk pi poljr emgglr ia airempjig# rifhv mrlia porll /6* pz~lv4

    % Jkgli|v rifh'% Vl`jelgpmrz rifh'% Elpmeir~ojf rifh'

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    B|hjp Pjgkkj# ^momgk

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    0)26)2>=2 6

    Emkem 4 Pol ^mrlgp Emplrjmc ia

    Jkgli|v Rifh Pol {ir` "jkgli|v" jv `lrjql` arie pol

    Cmpjgjkgl|v# elmgjgk"ajrl"'

    Jkgli|v rifhv mrl rifhv pomp omql

    frzvpmccjtl` arie eicplg rifh emplrjmc

    fmccl` emkem'

    Eicplg rifh prm~~l` |g`lrkri|g` jv fmccl`emkem' Eicplg rifh lr|~pl` mp Lmrpo+v

    v|ramfl jv rlalrrl` pi mv cmqm'

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latinhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin
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    0)26)2>=2 0

    Oi{ Jkgli|v Rifh jv Airel`9

    Emkem jv clvv `lgvl pomg pol

    v|rri|g`jgk vicj` rifhv# jp rjvlv

    pi{mr` pol v|ramfl'

    Jp vlppcl {jpojg pol fr|vp ir lr|~p

    mp pol v|ramfl arie m qicfmgimv m cmqm aci{'

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    0)26)2>=2 =2 1

    Vci{ fiicjgk 5 fimrvl krmjgv'

    Jgpr|vjql rifhv plg` pi bl fimrvl krmjgl`

    Emkem lr|~pl` mp pol v|ramfl jv fojccl` vi }|jfhcz

    pomp pol jg`jqj`|mc ejglrmcv omql cjppcl ir gi fomgfl pi

    kri{

    Pol rifh jv ljpolr fie~ivl` ia ejglrmcv pomp fmg bl

    vllg igcz {jpo pol mj` ia m ejfrivfi~l /fmccl`m~omgjpjf# arie pol Krllh m~omglv# elmgjgk

    "jgqjvjbcl"* ir figpmjgv gi ejglrmcv mp mcc

    ]|jfh fiicjgk 5 ajgl krmjgv'

    Lxpr|vjql jkgli|v rifhv plg` pi bl ajgl krmjgl`

    ir kcmvvz'

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    FOM^ 6'2 Jkgli|v rifh'

    Jkgli|v rifh % emkem vicj`jajlv bz frzvpmccjtjgk jgpim eivmjf ia ejglrmcv'Jgpr|vjql jkgli|v rifhv % emkem vicj`jajlv blci{ polv|ramfl ia pol lmrpo# emz cmplr bl lx~ivl` mp polv|ramfl {olg pol fiqlr rifhv mrl lri`l` m{mz'Lxpr|vjql jkgli|v rifhv % aire arie pol emkem {ojfojv lxpr|`l` igpi pol lmrpo v|ramfl pi frlmpl mqicfmgi'

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    JGPR\VJQL

    JKGLI\VRIFHV

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    Jgpr|vjql Jkgli|v Rifhv

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    Jgpr|vjql# ir ~c|pigjf jkgli|v rifh airev{olg emkem jv prm~~l` `ll~ jgvj`l pol Lmrpo'

    Eivp ia pojv emplrjmc emz fiic mg` vicj`jazblairl jp lqlg rlmfolv pol v|ramfl'

    Airel` |g`lr fig`jpjigv ia ojko ~rlvv|rl mg`ojko ple~lrmp|rl'

    fmg mcvi bl fcmvvjajl` mffir`jgk pi pol vom~lmg` vjtl ia pol jgpr|vjql bi`z

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    Fimrvl krmjgl` jgpr|vjql jkgli|v rifhv {ojfo aire

    mp `l~po {jpojg pol lmrpo mrl plrel` mv mbzvvmc8

    jgpr|vjql jkgli|v rifhv {ojfo aire glmr pol v|ramfl

    mrl plrel` oz~mbzvvmc

    Jgpr|vjql rifhv omql m fimrvl krmjgl` plxp|rl'

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    bmpoicjpo jv pol cmrklvp ia pol jgpr|vjql bi`jlv'

    bmpoicjpo emz iff|~z o|kl mrlmv ia pol Lmrpo+v v|ramfl{olg lx~ivl` bz lrivjig'

    @jhl jv m qlrpjfmc ir glmr qlrpjfmc jgpr|vjql jkgli|v rifhbi`z pomp f|pv mfrivv rifh bl`v'

    cmfficjpo jv m `iel vom~l` jgpr|vjql bi`z pomp omv

    jgpr|`l` blp{llg cmzlrv ia vl`jelgpmrz rifh' vjcc jv vjejcmr pi m `jhl {jpo pol lxfl~pjig pomp vjccv r|g

    ~mrmcclc pi pol lxjvpjgk rifh bl` jgvplm` ia f|ppjgkpori|ko jp'

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    FOM^ 6'2 Plxp|rl'Plxp|rl rlalr pi vjtl# vom~l ! mrrmgklelgp iaejglrmc krmjgv'

    % jgplrcifhjgk frzvpmccjgl plxp|rl'

    M~omgjpjf4 ajgl%krmjgl` vjtl 4 rm~j` fiicjgk'^omglrjpjf4 fi|rvl%krmjgl` vjtl 4 vci{ fiicjgk'^ir~ozrjpjf4 `jaa vjtl ia ejglrmcv ~rlvlgp jg vmelrifh'Kcmvvz4 Cmqm fiic rm~j`cz mpiev omql gi pjel piblfiel mrrmgkl` jg ir`lr'Qlvjf|cmr4 Rifh ~ivvlvvjgk qlvjfclv /{mplr qm~ir !kmvvlv jg fiicjgk cmqm aire oiclv*'Armkelgpmc

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    Ajk|rl 2 Jkgli|v rifh plxp|rlv'

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    Krmgjpl jgpr|vjql jkgli|v

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    JKGli\V rIfHLxpr|vjql jkgli|v rifh9

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    Emkem {ojfo lr|~pv arie m qicfmgi

    blomqlv mffir`jgk pi jpv qjvfivjpz#

    `lplrejgl` bz ple~lrmp|rl# fie~ivjpjig#mg` frzvpmc figplgp' Ojko%ple~lrmp|rl

    emkem# eivp ia {ojfo jv bmvmcpjf jg

    fie~ivjpjig# blomqlv jg m emgglr vjejcmr pipojfh ijc mg`# mv jp fiicv# prlmfcl'

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volcanohttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viscosityhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viscosityhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volcano
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    Lxpr|vjql Jkgli|v Rifhv

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    Alcvjf emkem v|fo mv rozicjpl jv |v|mccz

    lr|~pl` mp ci{ ple~lrmp|rl mg` jv |~ pi =>#>>>

    pjelv mv qjvfi|v mv bmvmcp' Qicfmgilv {jporozicjpjf emkem fieeigcz lr|~p lx~civjqlcz#

    mg` rozicjpjf cmqm aci{v pz~jfmccz mrl ia cjejpl`

    lxplgp mg` omql vpll~ emrkjgv# blfm|vl pol

    emkem jv vi qjvfi|v'

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhyolitehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basalthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basalthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhyolite
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    Blfm|vl cmqm fiicv mg` frzvpmccjtlv rm~j`cz# jp

    jv ajgl krmjgl`' Ja pol fiicjgk omv bllg vi rm~j`

    mv pi ~rlqlgp pol airempjig ia lqlg vemccfrzvpmcv maplr lxpr|vjig# pol rlv|cpjgk rifh emz

    bl eivpcz kcmvv /v|fo mv pol rifhibvj`jmg*' Ja

    pol fiicjgk ia pol cmqm om~~lgl` vci{cz# pol

    rifhv {i|c` bl fimrvl%krmjgl`'

    Ibvj`jmg rifhv mrl jkgli|v rifhv

    pomp aire {olg cmqm fiicv}|jfhcz mbiql kri|g`' Ibvj`jmg

    jv mfp|mccz kcmvv mg` gip m

    ejxp|rl ia ejglrmcv' Pol l`klv

    ia pojv rifh mrl qlrz vomr~'

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obsidianhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obsidian
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    Blfm|vl pol ejglrmcv mrl ajgl%krmjgl`# jp jv

    e|fo eirl `jaajf|cp pi `jvpjgk|jvo blp{llg

    pol `jaalrlgp pz~lv ia lxpr|vjql jkgli|vrifhv pomg blp{llg `jaalrlgp pz~lv ia

    jgpr|vjql jkgli|v rifhv'

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    Fieeig pz~lv ia lxpr|vjql jkgli|v rifhv

    mrl cmqm rifhv# fjg`lrv# ~|ejfl# ibvj`jmg#

    mg` qicfmgjf mvo mg` `|vp'

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    Rozicjpl lxpr|vjql jkgli|v

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    Ejfrivfi~l

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    Ajk|rl 04 ^oir~ozrjpjf plxp|rl4/m* M~omgjpjf lxpr|vjql jkgli|v rifh/b* ^ir~ozrjpjf jgpr|vjql jkgli|v rifh

    /m* /b*

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    FOM^ 6'2 Ejglrmc fie~ivjpjigv'

    Emjg fie~ivjpjig ia jkgli|v rifh % vjcjfm ejglrmcv/icjqjgl# ~zrixlgl# alc`v~mrv# }|mrpt*'

    Bi{lgv rlmfpjig vlrjlv mrrmgklelgp ia ejglrmcvblfmel'\cprmemajf /30

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    |cprmemajf

    emajf

    jgplrel`jmpl

    alcvjf

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    Ajk|rl 04 Rlcmpjql ~ri~irpjigv ia fojla ejglrmcfie~iglgp jg jkgli|v rifhv'

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    V|b`|fpjig ia mg iflgjf ~cmpl blglmpo ljpolr iflgjf ~cmpl ir figpjglgpmc ~cmpl

    ~ri`|fl emkem' Emkem aire ~c|pigv mg` viel lr|~pl` igpi vlmaciir ir mp

    qicfmgilv mcigk figqlrklgp ~cmpl bi|g`rjlv'

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    Ficir ) Plxp|rl Fcmvvjajfmpjig

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    Ejglrmc ^lrflgp Mb|g`mgfl Fomrp

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    ALCVJF RIFH

    KRMGJPL

    IBVJ@JMG

    ^\EJFL

    KRMGJPL

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    KRMGJPL

    Krmgjpl jv mg jkgli|v rifh pomp jv fie~ivl` ia ai|r ejglrmcv' Polvl ejglrmcv mrl

    }|mrpt# alc`v~mr# ejfm# mg` |v|mccz oirgbclg`l' Krmgjpl airev mv emkem fiicv amr

    |g`lr pol lmrpo+v v|ramfl' Blfm|vl jp omr`lgv `ll~ |g`lrkri|g` jp fiicv qlrz vci{cz'

    Pojv mcci{v frzvpmcv ia pol ai|r ejglrmcv pi kri{ cmrkl lgi|ko pi bl lmvjcz vllg bz

    pol gmhl` lzl'

    Krmgjpl jv mg lxflcclgp emplrjmc air b|jc`jgk brj`klv mg` b|jc`jgkv blfm|vl jp fmg

    {jpovpmg` poi|vmg`v ia ~i|g`v ia ~rlvv|rl' Jp jv mcvi |vl` air eig|elgpv blfm|vl

    jp {lmpolrv vci{cz' Lgkrmqjgkv jg pol krmgjpl fmg bl rlm` air o|g`rl`v ia zlmrv#

    emhjgk pol rifh eirl qmc|mbcl'

    IBVJ@JMG

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    IBVJ@JMG

    Ibvj`jmg jv m qlrz vojgz gmp|rmc qicfmgjf kcmvv' [olg ibvj`jmg brlmhv jp armfp|rlv{jpo m `jvpjgfp figfoij`mc armfp|rl'Ibvj`jmg jv ~ri`|fl` {olg cmqm fiicv qlrz

    }|jfhcz' Pol cmqm fiicv vi }|jfhcz pomp gi frzvpmcv fmg aire'

    [olg ~li~cl emhl kcmvv polz elcp vjcjfm rifhv cjhl vmg` mg` }|mrpt polg fiicjp rm~j`cz bz ~cmfjgk jp jg {mplr' Ibvj`jmg jv ~ri`|fl` jg gmp|rl jg m vjejcmr {mz'Ibvj`jmg jv |v|mccz bcmfh ir m qlrz `mrh krllg# b|p jp fmg mcvi bl ai|g` jg mg

    mceivp fclmr aire'Mgfjlgp ~li~cl pori|koi|p pol {irc` omql |vl` ibvj jmg air mrri{olm`v#

    hgjqlv# v~lmrolm`v# mg