4.teori motivasi,content theories

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1 4. Teori Motivasi : 4. Teori Motivasi : Content Content Theories Theories Perilaku Organisasi Perilaku Organisasi Fakultas Ekonomi Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Padjadjaran Universitas Padjadjaran Bandung 2004 Bandung 2004

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Transcript of 4.teori motivasi,content theories

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4. Teori Motivasi : 4. Teori Motivasi : Content Content TheoriesTheories

Perilaku OrganisasiPerilaku OrganisasiFakultas EkonomiFakultas Ekonomi

Universitas PadjadjaranUniversitas PadjadjaranBandung 2004Bandung 2004

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Pengertian dan Model MotivasiPengertian dan Model Motivasi Teori hirarki kebutuhan MaslowTeori hirarki kebutuhan Maslow Teori dua faktor Frederick HerzbergTeori dua faktor Frederick Herzberg Teori kebutuhan McClellandTeori kebutuhan McClelland Alderfer’s ERG theoryAlderfer’s ERG theory

Tujuan PengajaranTujuan Pengajaran

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Pengertian dan Model Pengertian dan Model MotivasiMotivasi

PengertianPengertian

The willing to exert high levels of effort toward The willing to exert high levels of effort toward organization goals, conditioned by effort to satisfy organization goals, conditioned by effort to satisfy some individual needsome individual need

Model MotivasiModel Motivasi

Teori hirarki kebutuhan MaslowTeori hirarki kebutuhan Maslow Teori dua faktor Frederick HerzbergTeori dua faktor Frederick Herzberg Teori kebutuhan McClellandTeori kebutuhan McClelland Alderfer’s ERG theoryAlderfer’s ERG theory

Source : Stephen P. Robbins

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The Motivational Process : An Initial Model

INeed deficiencies“I want to perform well to earn the promotion.”

IVPerformance (evaluation of goal accomplished)“Highest ratings on quantity, quality and cost containment.”

IIIGoal directed behavior“The Promotion.”

IISearch for ways satisfy needs“I need to show the manager that I want the promotion work on tough assignments, work extra hours, help co-worker.”

VRewards of punishments“Received recognition award; granted the opportunity to attend training program.”

VINeed deficiencies reassessed by the employee“I still want the promotion. I’ve got to try another approach.”

The Employee

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Teori hirarki kebutuhan MaslowTeori hirarki kebutuhan Maslow

““That people’s needs depend on what they That people’s needs depend on what they

already have. In a sense, then, a satisfied needs already have. In a sense, then, a satisfied needs

isn’t a motivator. Human needs, organized in a isn’t a motivator. Human needs, organized in a

hierarchy of importance, are hierarchy of importance, are physiological, physiological,

safety, belongingness, esteem, and self safety, belongingness, esteem, and self

actualizationactualization””

Source : Gibson

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Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Self actualization

Esteem

Social / Belongingness

Safety

Physiological

Source : Stephen P. Robbins

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TEORI DUA FAKTOR FREDERICK HERZBERGTEORI DUA FAKTOR FREDERICK HERZBERG

View that job satisfaction results from the presence View that job satisfaction results from the presence of intrinsic motivators and that job dissatisfaction of intrinsic motivators and that job dissatisfaction stems from not having extrinsic factorsstems from not having extrinsic factors

Source : Gibson

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Traditional and Herzberg Views of Satisfaction-Traditional and Herzberg Views of Satisfaction-DissatifactionDissatifaction

I. TraditionalI. Traditional

High job High job dissatisfactiodissatisfactionn

High job High job satisfactionsatisfaction

II. Herzberg’s two-factor viewII. Herzberg’s two-factor view

Low job Low job satisfactionsatisfaction

High job High job satisfaction satisfaction (motivator)(motivator)

Low job Low job dissatisfactiodissatisfactionn

High job High job satisfaction satisfaction (hygiene)(hygiene)

Source : Gibson

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Teori Kebutuhan McClellandTeori Kebutuhan McClelland

Learned Needs Theory Learned Needs Theory

Theory that proposes that a person with a strong need Theory that proposes that a person with a strong need

will be motivated to use appropriate behaviors to will be motivated to use appropriate behaviors to

satisfy the need. A person’s needs are learned from satisfy the need. A person’s needs are learned from

the culture of a societythe culture of a society

Thematis Apperception Test (TAT) Thematis Apperception Test (TAT)

Projective test that uses a person’s analysis of picture Projective test that uses a person’s analysis of picture

to evaluate such individual differences as to evaluate such individual differences as need for need for

achivement, need for power, and need for affiliationachivement, need for power, and need for affiliation

Source : Gibson

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The theory focus on three needsThe theory focus on three needs

1. 1. Need for achievementNeed for achievement

3. 3. Need for affiliationNeed for affiliation

The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of

standards, to strive to succeedstandards, to strive to succeed

2. 2. Need for powerNeed for power

The need to make others behave in a way that they The need to make others behave in a way that they

wouldn’t have behaved otherwisewouldn’t have behaved otherwise

The desire for friendly and close interpersonal The desire for friendly and close interpersonal

relationshipsrelationships

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Alderfer’s ERG theoryAlderfer’s ERG theory

Theory developed and tested by Alderfer that Theory developed and tested by Alderfer that

categorized needs as categorized needs as existence, related-ness and existence, related-ness and

growthgrowth

Source : Gibson

ExistenceExistence; ; needs satisfied by such as food, air, water, pay and working conditionsneeds satisfied by such as food, air, water, pay and working conditions

GrowthGrowth; ; needs satisfied by an individual making creative or productive contributionsneeds satisfied by an individual making creative or productive contributions

Related-nessRelated-ness; ; needs satisfied by meaningful social and interpersonal relationshipneeds satisfied by meaningful social and interpersonal relationship

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ERG Theory Relationships among Frustration, ERG Theory Relationships among Frustration,

Importance and Satisfaction of NeedsImportance and Satisfaction of Needs

Frustration of growth needs

Importanceof growth needs

Satisfactionof growth needs

Frustration of relatedness needs

Importanceof relatedness needs

Satisfactionof relatedness needs

Frustration of existence needs

Importanceof existence needs

Satisfactionof existence needs

Source : Gibson

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A graphic Comparison of Four Content Theories of A graphic Comparison of Four Content Theories of

MotivationMotivationMaslowMaslow

(need (need

hierarchy)hierarchy)

Self-actualizationSelf-actualization

EsteemEsteem

Belongingness, Belongingness,

social and lovesocial and love

PhysiologicalPhysiological

HerzbergHerzberg

(two factor (two factor

theory)theory)

The work itselfThe work itself

- Responsibility- Responsibility- AdvancementAdvancement- GrowthGrowth

Achievement Achievement

RecognitionRecognition

Quality of Quality of

interpersonal interpersonal

relations among relations among

peers, with peers, with

supervisor, with supervisor, with

subordinatessubordinates

Job securityJob security

Working conditions Working conditions

SalarySalary

AlderferAlderfer

GrowthGrowth

RelatedneRelatedne

ssss

ExistenceExistence

Mc Mc

ClellandClelland

Need for Need for

achievemenachievemen

t t

Need for Need for

powerpower

Need for Need for

affiliationaffiliation

Higher order needs

Basic needs

Motivators

Hygiens conditions